M.Sc Biotechnology (Previous)
Note:Each theory paper will contain 9 question out of which a candidate has to attempt 5 questions in all.Question no. 1 will be compulsory and will carry 20 marks.This will be of several short objective type of questions such as one word answer,fill in the blanks.true of false,or multiple choice type and will be set in a manner so as to cover the entire syllabus.
Cell Diversity:Cell size shape, cell theory,structure and function of cell organelles in prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells.Cells as experimental models:E.Coli,yeast,Caenorhabditis elegans,Drosophila melanogaster,Arabidopsis thaliana & vertebrates.
The cell cycle and programmed cell death:Cell cycle,molecular events in plants and animals.The mechanics of cell division.Cell motility.Cell death:Apoptosis.Extra-cellular control of cell division, cell growth & Apoptosis.
The cytoskeleton:The self assembly and dynamic structure of cytoskeletal filaments,How cells regulate their cytoskeletal filaments; molecular moters,the cytoskeleton and cell behavior.Microtubule motors & movements.Cell-cell interactions:Cell Adhesion proteins,tight & gap junctions, plant cell adhesion & plasmodesmata.
Techniques for cell study:Different types of microscopy,cell fractionation methods,x-ray diffraction & NMR spectroscopy, Histochemistry, Microtomy,FISH,GISH.
Energy conversion:Mitochondria and chloroplasts.Electron transport chains and their protein pumps,the genetic system of mitochondria and plastids.The evolution of electron transport chains.
Transport of nutrients,icons & macromolecules across membranes.Signal transduction,mechanism and cellular responses to environmental signals.Biosyntesis of proteins in Eukaryotic cells, Co-and post translational modification, intracellular protein traffic.
Protein localization:synthesis of secretory and membrane proteins.
Cellular basis of differentiation and development-mitosis, gametogenesis and fertilization Development in Drosophila and Arabiopsis; PM5 spatial & temporary regulation of gene expression.
Biostatistics brief description and tabulation of data and its graphical representation.Measures of central tendency and dispersion:mean,median,mode,range standard deviation,variance,idea of two types of errors and level of significance,test of significance (F & T test);shi-square tests.Simple linear regression and correlation.
- Microscopy:Demonstration of different types of microscopes.
- Instrumental methods for the cell biology.
- Sub-cellular fractionation & marker enzymes.
- Histochemical localization of protein,carbohydrate,fats,strach,lignin,DNA,RNA etc.
- Mitosis and Meiosis
- Biostatistics exercises.
- Molecular Biology of Cell,Alberts,B et al.
- Moleular Cell biology,Lodish et al.
- Reproduction in Eukaryotic cells,DM Presco,Academic press.
- Developmental Biology,SF gillbert,Sinauor Assoclaltes Inc.
- Cell in Development and Inheritance, EB Wilson,MacMillan New York.
- The colled spring,Ethan Bler,Cold Spring Harbor Press.
- Fertilization F.T. longo chapman & Hall.
- Molecular biology of Steroid and Nuclear Hormone Receptors, LP Freedman, Birkhuser.
Note:Each theory paper will contain 9 question out of which a candidate has to attempt 5 questions in all.Question no. I will be compulsory and will carry 20 marks.This will be of several short objective type of questions suchj as one word answer,fill in the blanks,true of false or multiple choice type and will be set in a manner so as to cover the entire syllabus.
Principles of thermodynamics,first and second law,concept of free energy high energy compounds,Amino acids and peptides- classification, chemical reactions and physical properties.
Proteins-classification,heirarchy in structure,Ramachandran map.Protein sequencing,Glyco and lipoproteins-structure and function.
Sugars-Classification and reactions,Polysaccharides-types,structural features,methods for compositional analysis.
Lipids-Classification,structure and functions,glycero phospholopids, sphignolopids,cholesterol and its biosynthesis. Polynucleotides: biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines,de novo and salvage pathway.
Secondary metabolities inliving systems:Alkaloids,Steroids and Flavonoids.Macromolecules and super molecular assembilies-like membranes,ribosomes,chromosomes.
Enzymes and coezmes,classification,enzme inhibition,enzyme kinetics Michalis Menten Equation,Km value,Kinetics of bi-bi substrate reaction, regulation of enzyme activity,feed back inhibition and allosteric control.Enzyme catalysis in solution,effect of organic solvents on enzyme catalysis,Immobilization f enzymes and its application,determination of active sites.
Analytical techniques in bio-chemistry:chromatography:Ion exchange,liquid-liquid Chromatography,GLC,HPLC:Electrophoresis including 2DPAGE; Spectrro photometry:Beers and Lambert law,Types of detectors(UVVIS).Physical techniques in structural analysis:UV,IR,NMR,LASER/Raman spectroscopy X-ray Crystallography and Ultra centrigugation.
Protein and nucleic acid data bases:structural comparison at secondary and tertiary levels.computer aided drug designing,Computational techniques in structural analysis;Nanoparticles.
- Reactions of amino acids,sugars and lipids.
- Isolation,purity determination and quantitation of cholesterol,DNA and RNA
- Electrophoresis of Proteins-native and under denaturing conditions.
- N-and C-terminal analysis of proteins.
- Peptide mapping.
- Quantitation of Proteins and Sugars.
- Analysis of oils-iodine number,saponification value,acid number.
- UV. Visible,Fluroence and IR Spectroscopy.Absorption spectra.
- Separation techniques-Centrifugation,Chromatography (Gepermeation, Ion exchange.TLC etc.)and Electrophoresis.
- Separation techniques(HPLC,GPC,FPLC)
- Enzyme:Purification and Kinetic analysis.
- Electrophoresis of DNA-linear,circular and super coiled.
- Biochemistry,D.Voet and J.G.Voet,John Wiley & Sons.
- Biochemical Calculations,Irwin H.segel,John wiley and sons inc.
- General Chemistry,Linus Pauling,W.H.Freeman & Company.
- Organic Chemistry,DJ Cram and GS Hammond,McGraw Hill.
- Biochemistry, D Voot and JG Vet,J Wiley and Sons.
- Physical biochemistry,D Frefilder,W.H. Freeman & company.
- Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,Work and work.
- Understanding Chemistry,CNR Rao,Universities press,Hydrabad 1999.
- A Biologist's Guide to principles and Techniques of practical biochemistry,K.Wilson & KH goulding,ELBS Edition 1986.
- Tools of Biochemistry by T.G. cooper.
- Essentials of Molecular Biology,David friefilser.jones and Barllett publications.
- Proteins-Structure and Molecular properties.TE creighton,WH freeman and company.
- Genes VII,B.Lewin.Oxford university press.
- Introduction to protein structure.c.Branden and J.Tooze,Garland publishing,New York.
- Encyclopaedia of Molecular Biology,J.Kendrew,Blackwell scientific publications,oxford.
- Physical chemistry of Macromolecules,taford,C.,John Wiley and Sons.
- Introduction to Biophysical Chemistry.RB Martin,McGraw Hill,New York.
- Biophysical chemistry,Cantor,WH Freeman.
- Protein Structure,by Max Perut Perutz.
Note:Each theory paper will contain 9 question out of which a candidate has to attempt 5 questions in all.Question no.I will be compulsory and will carry 20 marks.This will be of several short objective type of questions such as one word answer.fill in the blanks,true of false,or multiple choice type and will be set in a manner so as to cover the entire syllabus.
History and Development of Microbiology.Microbial evolution,systematic and taxonomy-Evolution of earth and earliest life forms;primitive organisms and their metabolic strategies and molecular coding;New approaches to bacterial taxonomy classification including ribotyping;Ribosomal RNA sequencing;Characteristics of primary domains;Taxonomy,Nomenclature and Bergey's Manual.
Prokarotic and eukaryotic diversity.Prokaryotic Cells:Structure and Function-Cell wall composition of Gram+ve & -ve bacteria;Cell wall and cell membrane synthesis;Flagella and motility;cell inclusions like endospores,gas vesicales.Bacteria:Purple and green bacterial, Cyanobacteria;budding bacteria,Spirochaetes;Sheathed bacteria,Endospore forming rods and cocci; Mycobacteria; Rickettsias, Chlamydias and Mycoplasms,Archaea:Archaea as earliest life forms;Halophiles, Methanogens;Hyperthermophilic archaea and Thermoplasma.Eukarya:Algae,Fungi,Slime molds and Protozoa.
Methods in Microbiology:Pure culture technique;and auxotrophs.Microbial Growth-The definition of growth,mathematical expression of growth,growth cure,measurement of growth and growth yields,Synchronous growth,Continuous,Batch and Fed Batch Culture;Growth as affected by environmental factors like temperature,acidity,alkalinity,water availability and oxygen;Culture collection maintenance and preservation.
Physiology and Metabolic Diversity amont Microorganisms-Nutritional classification of microorganisms- chemoautotrophs, chemotheterotrophs and photosnthetic microorganisms.Photosynthesis in microorganisms;Role of Chlorophylls,Carotenoids and phycobilins;Light and Dark Reaction; Chemolithotrophy;Hydrogen,Iron,Nitrate and oxidizing bacteria;Nitrate and sulfate reduction;Syntrophy;Role of anoxicdecomposition;Nitrogen metabolism;Nitrogen fixatil;Hydrocarbon transformation.
Microbial Diseases-Disease reservoirs;Epidemiologial terminologies;infectious disease transmission;Respiratory infections caused by bacteria and viruses;Tuberculosis;Sexually transmitted diseases including ;Disease transmitted by animals(rabies),insects and ticks(rickettsias,malaria),Food and water borne diseases;Public health and water quality;Pathogenic fungi;Emerging and resurgent infectious diseases.
Host Parasite Relationships-Normal microflora of skin,oral cavity,gastrointestinal tract;entry of pathogens into the host;colonization and factors predisposing to infections;types of toxins(Exotoxin,Endotoxin and Entreotoxin)and their structure;mode of actions;virulence and pathogenesis.
Chemotherapy and Antimicrobial agents;Sulfa drugs;Antibiotics;Pencillins and Cephalosporins;Broad-Spectrum antibiotics;Antibiotics from prokaryotes;Antifungal antibiotics;Mode of action;Resistance to antibiotics.
Genes,Mutation and Mutagenesis-Mutagens-Radiation and chemical;Types of mutation and their repair mechanism;Ames test for mutagenesis;Methods of genetic analysis.Bacterial Genetic System-Recombination-Transformation,Conjugation,Transduction,Plasmids and Transposons,Bacterial genetic map with reference to E.coli.Genetic Systems of Yeast and Neurospora Extra-Chromosomal Inheritance.
- Preparation of liquid and solid media for growth of microorganisms.
- Isolation and maintenance of organisms by plating,streaking and serial dilution methods,slants and stab cultures, storage of microorganisms.
- Isolation of pure cultures from soil and water.
- Growth;Growth curve,Measurement of bacterial population by turbidometry and serial dilution methods.Effect of temperature,pH and carbon and nitrogen source on growth.
- Microscopic examination of bacteria,yeast and molds and study of organisms by Gram stain,Acid fast stain and staining for spores.
- Study of mutations by Ames test.
- Assay of antibiotics and demonstration of antibiotic resistance.
- Analysis of water for potability and determination of MPN.
- Biochemical characterization of selected microbes.
- Effect of antibiotics on microbes.
- Other practical based on theory syllabus.
- General Microbiology,Stainer,R.Y.,Ingraham,J.L,Whelis,M.L and Painter,P.R. The Macmillan Press Btd.
- Brock Biology Microorganism,Madigan,M.T.,Martinko,J.M. and Parker,J.Printice-Hall.
- Microbiology,Pelczar,M.J.Jr.,Chan,E.C.S. and Kreig,N.R.,Tata McGraw HIll.
- Microbial Genetics,Maloy,S.R.,Cronan,J.E.Jr. andFreifelder,D.Jones,Bartlett Publishers.
- Microbiology-a Laboratory Manual,Cappuccino,J.G and Sherman,N.Addison Wesley.
- Microbiological Applications,(A Laboratory Manual in General Microbiology)Benson,H.J.WCG;Wm C.Brown Publishers.
- Microbiology:Fundamentals and Applications,S.S. Purohit,Published by Agrobios INdia.
- Industrial Microbiology,A.H. Patel.
Note:Each theory paper will contain 9 question out of which a candidate has to attempt 5 questions in all.Question no.I will be compulsory and will carry 20 marks.This will be of several short objective type of questions such as one word answer,fill in the blanks,true of false,or multiple choice type and will be set in a manner so as to cover the entire syllabus.
Introduction to Molecular Biology and Genetic.DNA Replication.Prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication,Mechanics of DNA replication,Enzymes and accessory proteins involved in DNA replication.DNA Repair and Recombination.
Transcription-Prokaryotic transcription,Eukaryotic transcription,RNA polymerase,General and specific transcription factors,Regulatory elements and machanisms of transcription regulation,Transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing.Mdifications in RNA.5'Cap formation,Transcription,3'-end processing and polydenylation,splicing,Editing,Nuclear export of mRNA,m-RNA stability.
Translation-Prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation,the translation machinery,Mechanisms of initation,elongation and termination,Regulation of translation,co-and post-translational modifications of proteins.Protein Localization.Synthesis of Secretory and membrane proteins,Import into nycleus,mitochondria,chloroplast and peroxismes,Receptor mediated endocytosis.
Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes-Viral and cellular oncogenes,tumor suppressor genes from humans,Structure,function and mechanism of action of pRB and p53 tumor suppressor proteins.
Antisense and Ribozyme Technology-Molecular mechanism of antisense molecules,inhibition of splicing,polyadenylation and translation,disrption of RNA structure and capping,Biochemistry of ribozyme;hammerhead,hairpin and other ribozymes,strategies for disigning ribozymes,Applications of antisense and ribozyme technology.
Homologous Recombination-Holiday junction,gene targeting,genedisruption,FLP/FRT and Cre/Lox recombination,Rec A and other recombinases.
Molecular Mapping of Genome-Genetic and physical maps,physical mapping and map-based cloning,choice of mapping population,simple sequence repeat loci,Southern and fluorescence in situ hybridization in genome analysis:RELP,RAPD and AFLP analysis,Molecular marker linked to diseased resistance genes,Application of RFLP in forensic,diseases prognosis,genetic counselling, and Pedigree,varietal etc.Animal trafficking and poaching;Germplasm maintenance,taxonomy and bio-diversity.
Genome Sequencing-Genome sizes,organelle genomes,Genomic libraries,YAC,BAC libraries,Strategies for sequencing genome,Packaging,transfection and recovery of clones,Application of sequence information for indentification of defective genes.
- Isolation of genomic DNA.
- Southern blotting.
- RFLP analysis
- Isolation of RNA.
- Isolation of polyA+RNA.
- Nortern blotting.
- Preparation of probes.
- In vitro transcription
- In vitro translation.
Metabolic labellling of proteins and immunoprecipitation.
- Molecular Cloning:a Laboratory Manual,J.Sambrook,E.F.Fritsch and I.Maniatis,Cold Spring harbor Laboratory Press,New York,2000.
- Introduction to Practical Molecular Biology,P.D.Dabre,John Wiley & sojns Ltd.,Yourk,1988.
- Molecular Biology LabFax. T.A. Brown (Ed.), bios Scientific Publishers Ltds., Oxford,1991.
- Molecular biology of the Gene (4th Edition),J.D. Watson,N.H. Hopkins,J.W. Roberts,J.A. Steitz and A.M.
- Molecular Cell biology (2nd Edition)J.Darnell,H.Lodish and D.Baltimore,Scientific American Books,USA,1994.
- Molecular Biology of the Cell (2nd Edition)B.Alberts,D.Bray,J.Lewis,M.Raff,K.Roberts,and J.D. Watson, Garland publishing. Inc., New York,1994.
- Gene VI(6th Edition)Benjamin Lewin.Oxford University Press.U.K.,1998.
- Molecular Biology and biotechnology.A comprehensive desk reference.R.A. Meyers(Ed.) VCH Publishers,Inc.,New York,1995.
- 8th Day of Creations
Note: Each theory paper will contain 9 question out of which a candidate has to attempt 5 questions in all.Question no.I will be compulsory and will carry 20 marks.This will be of several short objective type of questions such as one word answer,fill in the blanks,true of false,or multiple choice type and will be set in a manner so as to cover the entire syllabus.
Brief outline on discovery of viruses,nomenclature and classification of viruses(LHT system;Classification as per VII report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses),distinctive properties of viruses;morphology and ultrastructure;capsids and their arrangements;envelopes and their compsition;viral genome,their types and structure;virus related agents(viroids,prions),Bacteriophage-structural organization;replication,one step growth curve;eclipse phase;phage production;burst sizw;lysogenic cycle brief details of X 174,t7,t4 M13,Mu,Lambda and PI.
Cultivation of viruses in embryonated eggs,experimental animals and cell cultures;primary and secondary cell cultures;suspension cell cultures and monolayer cell cultures;assay of viruses-physical and chemical methods (Protein,nucleic acid,electron microscopy),brief account of assay of viruses using serological techniques.Infectivity assay (plaque method,end point method).
Effects of viruses on plants;appearance of plants;histogy,physiology and cytology of plants;common virus diseases of plants;paddy,tomato and sugarcane;viruses of cyanobnacteria,algae,fungi,replication of plant viruses;type species of plant viruses like TMV,Cauliflower mosaic virus and potato virus X;transimission of plant viruses with vectors(insects,nematodes,fungi)and without vectors(contact,seed and pollens).Brief account of diagnostic techniques in plants;infectivity assay of plant viruses,indicator plants, isolation and purification of plant viruses,serological methods,histochemical tests.Prevention of crop loss due to virus infection-virus-free planting material;vector control.
Animal and human viruses-epidemiology replication,pathogenicity,diagnosis prevention and treatment of RNA Viruses,Picorna,Orthomyxo,Parmyxo,Toga and other arthropod viruses,Rhabdo,Rota,HIV and other Oncogenic viruses;DNA viruses;Pox,Herpes,Adeno,SV 40;Hepatitis viruses.Viral vaccines(conventional vaccines,genetic recombinant vaccines used in national immunmization programmes with examples)interferons,and antiviral drugs.
Brief history of immunology:immune responses,innate and acquired immunity,organization and structure of lymphoid organs,Nature,biology and types of antigens and superantigens. Antigen-antibody interaction- agglutination, precipitation,complement fixation,immunofluorescence,ELISA,Radioimmunoassay.
Major histocompatibility complex-cells of the immune system,haematopoesis and differentiation,lymphocyte trafficking,B-lymphocytes,T-lymphocytes,macrophages,dendritic cells,langerhan cells,Natural killer cells and lymphokine activated killer cells,eiosinophils,neutrophils and mast cells.
Regulation of immune response-antigen processing and presentation,generation of humoral and cell mediated immune responses;activation of B and T-lymphocytes,cytokines,and their role in immune regulation.T-cell regulation,MHC restriction,immunological tolerance.
Cell mediated cytotoxicity:Mechanism of T-cell and NK-cell mediated lysis.Attibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity,macrophage mediated cytotoxicity,Hypersensitivity,Autoimmunity,transplantation,Immunity to infectious agents (inter-cellular parasites,helminthes and virues).Tumor immunology,AIDS and other Immunodeficiencies.Hybridoma technology and monoclonal antibodies.
- Study of various symptoms produced in plants due to virus infection.
- Study of viral diseases of plants/animals/human (Specimen/photographs)
- Different type of viruses (Photographs/sketches).
- Raising virus free plants through apical meristem culture.
- Blood film preparation and identification of cells.
- Lymphoid organs and their microscopic organization.
- Immunization,Collection of Serum.
- Double diffusion and Immuno-electrophoresis.
- Radial Immuno diffusion.
- Purification of IgG from serum.
- Separation of mononuclear cells by Ficoll-Hypaque.
- Con-A induced proliferation of thymocytes (by MTT method).
- Hapten Conjugation and quantitation.
- Immunodiagnostics(demonstration using commercial kits).
Any other practical based on theory syllabus.
- Morag C and Timbury M.C.(1994) Medical virology-X Edition.
- Dimmock Nj,Primrose SB(1994).Introduction to Modern Virology,IV Edition,Blackwell Scientific Publications,Oxford.
- Conrat HF,Kimball PC and Levy JA(1994)virology-III Edition Prentice Hall,Englewood cliff,New jersey.
- Matews,RE.,(1992)Functionals of plant virology,Academic press,San Diego.
- Topley and Wilson's(1995)Text Book on principles of Bacteriology,virology and Immunology,Edward Arnold,London.
- Lennetter,(1984)Diagnostic procedures for viral and Rickettsial diseases.american public Health association, NY.
- William Hayes(1985)The genetics of Bacteria and their viruses.Blackwell Scientific Publishers,London.
- Ronald M.Atlas.(1995)-Principles of microbiology-MosbyYear Book,Inc.Missouri 63146.
- Kenneth M.Smith-plant viruses.Universal Book Stall,New Delhi.
- Mark H.Adams-Bacteriophages-inter science publishers,Inc.New York.
- D.G.A Walkey(1985)-Applied Virology.International Books & Periodicals supply service.New Delhi.
- Karl.Maramarosch.-Plant Deseases of viral,viroid,Mycoplasma & uncertain etiology.Oxford & IBH Publishing Vo.Pvt.Ltd.New Delhi,Bombay,Calcutta.
- Powar & Daginawala.General Microbiology Vol.II.Himalaya Publishing House.
- An Introduction to Viruses.Vikas Publishing House.
- Agrios,G.N.(1997)Plant Pathology,Academic Press.
- Kuby Immunology,4th Edition-R.A. Goldsby,Thomas J.Kindr.Barbara,A.Osbarne,(Freeman) & Co.New York.
- Immunology-A short course,4th Edition-Eli Benjamini,Richard Coico,Geoffrey Sunshine,(Wiley-Liss).
- Fundamentals of Immunology,William paul.
- Immunology,By Roitt and others.
- Roitt,I.M.(1998) Essentials of Immunology,ELBS,Blackwell Scientific publishers,London.
- Immunology by Abbas.
- Microbiology by Abbas
- Microbiology by Pelczar,Chan and Krieg.TMH.
Note: Each theory paper will contain 9 question out of which a candidate has to attempt 5 questions in all.Question no.I will be compulsory and will carry 20 marks.This will be of several short objective type of questions such as one word answer, fill in the blanks,true-of false,or multiple choice type and will be set in a manner so as to cover the entire syllabus.
Scope of Genetic Engineering Milestones in Genetic Engineering-Isolation enzymes,DNA sequencing,synthesis and mutation,detection and separation,cloning,gene expression.Cloning and patenting life forms.Genetic engineering guidelines.
Molecular Tools and Their Applications-Restriction enzymes,modification enzymes,DNA and RNA markers.Nucleic Acid Purification,Yield Analysis.
Nucleic Acid Amplification and its Applications.Gene Cloning Vectors Plasmids,bacteriophages,phagemids,cosmids.Artificial chromosomes.Restriction Mapping of DNA fragments and Map Construction.Nucleic Acid Sequencing.
cDNA Synthesis and Cloning-mRNA enrichment,reverse transcription,DNA primers,linkers,adaptors and their chemical synthesis,Library construction and screening.Alternative Strategies of Gene Cloning-Cloning interacting genes.Two and three hybrid systems,cloning differentially expressed genes.Nucleic acid microarray arrays.
Site-directed Mutagenesis and Protein Engineering.How to Study Gene Regulation?DNA transfection,Northern blot,Primer extension,SI mapping,RNase protection assays,Reporter assays.
Expression Strategies for Heterologous Genes-Vector engineering and codon optimization,host engineering,in vitro transcription and translation,expression in bacteria,expression in yeast,expression in insects and insect cells,expression in mammalian cells,expression in plants.Processing of Recombinant proteins-Purification and refolding, characterization of recombinant proteins,stabilization of proteins.Phage Display.
T-DNA and Transposon Tagging-Role of gene tagging in gene analysis,T-DNA and Transposon tagging,Identification and isolation of genes through T-DNA or transposon.Transgenic and GeneKnockout Technologies.Targeted gene replacement,Chromosome engineering.Gene Therapy-Vector engineering.Strategies of gene delivery,gene replacement/augmentation,gene correction,gene editing,gene regulation and silencing.
Bioinformatics-Introduction of computer fundamentals,digital computers;low and high level languages,binary number system.Introduction to programming in Q Basic and MS-DOS,MS-Word,MS-Excel.Applications of computers in biostatistical problems.Introduction of data structure and database concepts,introduction and details of webs analysis and internet and its applications(NICNET,etc.).Nucleic acid sequence database,protein,sequence database.Word processing,haward Graphics,Corel Draw,Basic SQC Promts.Bioinformatic,and Biotechnology.
- Bacterial culture and antibiotic selection media.Preparation of competent cells.
- Isolation of plasmid DNA.
- Isolation of Lambda phage DNA.
- Quantitation of nucleic acids.
- Quantitation of nucleic acids.
- Construction of restriction map of plasmid DNA
- Cloning in plasmid/phagemid vectors.
- Preparation of helper phage and its titration.
- Preparation of single stranded DNA template.
- DNA sequencing.
- Gene expression in E.coli and analysis of gene product.
- Reporter Gene assay (Gus/CAT/b-GAL).
- Molecular Closing:aLaboratory Manual,J.Sambrook.E.F.Fritsch and T.Maniatis,Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press,New York,2000.
- DNA Cloning:a practical Approach,D.M.Glover and B.D.Hames,IRL Press Oxford,1955.
- Molecular and cellular Methods in Biology and Medicine,P.B. Kaufman,W.Wu.,D.Kim and L.J:Cseke,CRC Press.Florida,1995.
- Methods in Enzymology Vol.152,Guide to Molecular Cloning Techniques,S.L.Berger and A.R.Kimmel,Academic press.Inc.San Dlogo,1998.
- Methods in Enzymology Vol.185,GeneExpression Technology,D.V.Gooddol,Academic Press,Inc.,San Diego,1990.
- DNA Science.A First Course in Recombinant Technology,D.A.Mickloss and G.A.Greyer,Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press,New York,1990
- Molecular Biotechnology (2nd Edn.),S.B.Primorso,Blackwoll Scientific Publishers,Oxford,1994.
- Milestones in Biotechnology.Classic papers on genetic Engineering,J.A.Davies and W.S.Roznikolf,Butterworth-Helnemann,Boston,1992.
- Route Maps in Gene Technology,M.R.Walker and R.Repley,Blackwell Science Ltd.Oxford,1997.
- Genetic Engineering.An Introduction to gene analysis and exploitation in eukaryotes.S.M.Kingsman and A.J.Kingsman,Blackwell Scientific Publications.Oxford,1998.
- Molecular Biotechnology-Glick.