UNIVERSITY OF RAJASTHAN, JAIPUR
Bachelor of Pharmacy
Ordinances relating to Bachelor of Pharmacy Examination (Four Years Course)
O.299-W-1.the duration of the Bachelor of pharmacy course shall be for four academic years,each academic year spread over a period of at least 25 weeks excluding the days spent in the examinations.
Eligibility for Admission to Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm)Course
O.299-w.2 The courses of study for the B.Pharm shall be open to both male and female candidates.
- No candidate shall be admitted to B.Pharm Pt. I unless he/she has passed senior Higher secondary certificate Examination (Standard XII of the Board or an examination recognised by the University as equivalent thereto in all the optional subjects and the compulsory subjects. (Physics,Chemistry,Biology and/or Mathematics including English as one of the compulsory subjects(s)with a minimum of 50% marks (36% for natural born schedule caste and schedule tribe candidates)in the aggregate of English and science subjects (Physics,Chemistry,Biology and/or Mathematics) taken together at the qualifying examination,or a candidate who has passed the D.Pharm Examination of the University of Raj,Jaipur and has secured 50% marks (36% for natural born schedule caste and schedule tribe candidates) at the 12th standard examination.
However,not more than 10% students admitted to B.Pharmacy Pt.I will consist of those who have passed D.Pharm.Examination.
Admission of candidates to the B.Pharmacy Pt.I shall be made in order of merit on the basis of a 'Pre-Pharmacy Test' in accordance with the scheme of the Examination and syllabus laid down by the University.
- A candidate who after passing the B.Pharm Pt.I examination of the University and has attended regular course of study in an affiliated college for one academic year shall be eligible for admission to the B.Pharm Pt.II Examination.
- A candidate who after passing the B.Pharm Pt.II examination of the university and has attended a regular couse of study in an affiliated college for one acaemic year shall be eligible for admission to the B.Pharm Pt.II Examination.
- A candidate who after passing the B.Pharm Pt.III examination of the university and has attended a regular couse of study in an affiliated college for one acaemic year shall be eligible for admission to the B.Pharm Pt.IV Examination.
- The examinations (annual & sessionals)shall be conducted by means of written papers (theory)and practicals (including oral examinations as laid down in the plan & scheme of examinations.Candidates shall be required to pass separately in theory & practicals (including sessionals)in the part,I,II,III and IV B.Pharm examinations.The medium of instruction and examinations shall be English.
- The regular record of both theory and practical assessment including sessionals conducted at an affiliated college shall be maintained for each student and are to be made available for the purpose of inspection by the University or council.
- At least two sessional examinations shall be conducted by the institute during each academic year.The sessional marks calculated on the basis of the best two performances at these examinations shall be submitted to the university.
The sessional marks in practicals shall be alloted on the basis of the performance in the sessional exams.and day to day assessment in the practicals class.
A candidate failing in any of the subjects shall have a chance to improve his/her sessional marks both in theory and practical by appearing in one additional sessional examination.The aggregate of best two performances from all the sessionals shall form the basis of calculating the average for computation of improved sessional marks.Marks for day to day assessment in the practicals cannot be improved unless a candidate attends a regular course of study again.
- No candidate shall be allowed to appear in any examination unless he/she attended 75% of the classes held in each theory and practicals separately in each subject.
- There shall be two University examinations in a year in each part of B.Pharm viz B.Pharm Pt.I,Pt.II,Pt.III,and Pt.IV (Final year) to be held in the month of April/May and oct/nov. A candidate shall have to appear in the nearest scheduled examination after the completion of regular course of study and if he/she fails or gets supplementary,he/she shall appear in subsequent examination.The practical examination shall normally be held before the theory examination.
- Each theory paper shall be of three hours duration and shall have two sections of equal marks viz.section A and section B of four questions each out of which three from each section shall be answered in separate answer books.Section A shall be evaluated by the internal examiner and section B by the external examiner.
- No candidate shall be declared as having passed an examination unless he/she has secured 50% of the maximum marks separately in theory (including sessionals)and practicals(including sessionals).
- Candidates who have appeared in all subjects and passed the exam.are eligible for promotion to subsequent part of B.Pharm.However,failure in more than three subjects (each theory paper or practical examination shall be considered as a subject)shall debar him/her from promotion to the higher class.Such candidate shall be examined in the failing subjects only at subsequent examination.A candidate who fails to pass B.Pharm Pt.I exam.in four attempts shall not be allowed to continue the course.
A candidate who has failed in not more than three subjects can proceed to the next higher examination the result of which shall not be declared until he/she has passed in the failing subjects.Not more than four attempts shall be given to pass a subject including I attempt.A candidate failing in the examination shall be examined only in the failing subjects.An attempt will be counted if he/she has appeared in full or a part of the examination.
- Class shall be awarded on the basis of aggregate of all four University examinations regardless of the number of attempts as shown below
First class-60% and above.
Second Class-More than 50% and less than 60%
Candidates securing 75% marks in a subject in first attempt shall be awarded a distinction in that subject.Merit shall be conferred to those candidates who have passed the whole examination in first attempt and such candidates shall be eligible for any prize or scholarship.
- Every candidate shall under-go practical training in a pharmaceutical Manufacturing Unit or in an analytical laboratory or in a basic drug manufacturing unit for a period of not less than 400 hours to be covered in not less than two months any time after the completion of B.Pharm Pt.III course and shall submit a training report to the Head of the Institution.The degree of the successful candidate shall be awarded after his/her producing the certificate of training from the Head of the respective manufacturing unit duly accepted and certified by the Head of the Institution conducting the B.Pharm course.
There shall be two examiners,one internal and one external for each theory and practical examinations.For theory examinations,paper setter shall be external person only.
No person shall be appointed as an external examiner in any subject of the B.Pharm course unless he/she has a postgraduate qualification with at least 5 years teaching experience in the subject concerned.Only the teachers of the respective colleges who teach/take practicals and are having post graduate qualifications shall be appointed as an internal examiner.
PLAN AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATION FOR B.PHARM.Part-I
PLAN AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATION FOR B.PHARM.Part-II
||Annual Exam Theory
||Pharmaceutical chemistry-I (organic Chemistry-I)
||Pharmaceutical chemistry-II (inorganic Chemistry)
||Pharm.Engineering-I(Principles of Gen.Engg.Environmental Pollution,safety Hazards)
||Pharmaceutics-II (Dispensing of Medication)
||Human Anatomy,Physiology Including Pahophysiology & Health Education
||Mathematics (Calculus & Biostatistics)
PLAN AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATION FOR B.PHARM.part-III
||Annual Exam Theory
||Pharm.Chem.III (Organic Chem.II-Inckuding Heterocyclic & Natural Products
||Pharmaceutics-III (Physical pharmacy)
||Business Mathematics including Budgeting,costing Accountancy & Audit
PLAN AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATION FOR B.PHARM.Part-IV
||Annual Exam Theory
||Pharmaceutics-IV (Pharm.Technology-II including Biological Pharmacy)
||Hospital Pharmacy (Clinical Pharmacy including Drug Interaction)
||Practice of pharmacy (Drug store Management,Laws & Ethics).
1.1 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I
||Annual Exam Theory
||Pharm.Chem.V (Medicinal Chem.-II including Drug Design)
||Pharmaceutics-V (Dosage form design including cosmeticology)
||Bio-Pharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics
||Pharm.Analysis-II (Instrumental & Market Sample Analysis Q.C. including statistical Q.C.)
||Pharmacognogy-II (Phytochemistry including isolation,identification,biogenesis of plant constituent and ayurvedic drugs)
||Biotechnology & Fermentation including Tissue culture
||Industrial Psychology & Management including marketing
- Stereochemistry-Enantiomerism,Chirality,The Racemic Modification,Configuration (R & S,D & L,d & 1),sequence rules,Diastereomers,Meso-structures,Conformational Isomers,Resolution of a racemic modification.
- Nucleophilic Aliphatic Substitution-Nucleophiles and leaving groups,SN2 & SN1 reactions,Duality of mechanism,Mechanism of Kinetics and stereochemistry of SN2 & SN1 reactions,carbonations and their rearrangements.
- Elimination Reactions-Geometric isomerism,Dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides (1,2 elimination),Kinetics of dehydrohalogenation,Duality of mechanism,Mechanism,orientation and reactivity of E2 and E1 reactions,Elimination:E2 v/s E1: Elimination v/s substitution.
- Free Radical Substitution-Halogenation of Alkanes upto four carbons & their relative reactivities,Mechanism & orientation of Halogenation,Ease of formation of free radicals,Transition state for halogenation,Orientation and reactivity,Reativity and selectivity,Inhibitors.
- Electrophilic and Free-radical AdditionElectrophilic addition:Mechanism,Reaction at the carbon-carbon double bond (addition) of Hydrogen,Halogen,Hydrogen Halides,Sulphuric acid & water,Rearrangements in electrophilic adition,orientation & reactivity,Mechanism & orientation of free radical addition.
- Conjugation & Resonance-Dienes-The carbon-carbon bond as a substituent,Free-Radical halogenation of alkenes:Substitution v/s addition,free radical substitution in alkenes;orientation,reactivity and allylic rearrangements.Theory of resonance,The allylradical as a resonance hybrid,stability & orbital picture of the allylradical,Resonance stabilization of allyl radicals,The allyl cation as a resonance hybrid,stabilization of carbocation.
- Conjugate Addition
- Aldehydes and Ketones-Structure,physical properties,Nomenclature,Preparation and reaction of aldehydes and ketones with due emphasis on electrophilic addition reactions.
- Aldol and claisen condensation-Acidity of-hydrogens,reactions involving carbanions,Base promoted halogenation of ketone,Acid catalysed halogenation of ketones,Aldol condensation,Use of aldol condensation,The wittig reaction,Claisen condensation,Crossed claisen condensation.
- Alcohols-Preparation,Physical properties and reactions.
- Industrial source,preparations,physical properties & reaction of Ethers,Epoxides & Alkynes.
- Basic Laboratory Techniques.
- Qualitative organic Analysis including preparation of derivatives.
1.2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II (Inorganic Chemistry)
- R.T.Morrison & R.N.Boyd,"Organic Chemistry",prentice Hall of India pvt.ltd.,new delhi.
- I.L.Finar,"Organic chemistry",Vol-1,E.L.B.S.London.
- R.D.Gupta,"A Text book of Analytical Chemistry"
- F.G.Mann & B.C. Saunders, "Practical organic Chemistry" Longmans,Green and Co.Ltd.,London.
- B.S.Furniss,et.al,"Vogal's Textbook of "Practical organic chemistry",E.L.B.S.,London.
- Wingrove A.S. & Caret R.L.,"Organic chemistry",Harper & Row publishiers,New York.
- Pine,Handrickson et.al,"Organic chemistry"McGrall Hill Book co.,N.Y.
- Eliel L."Stereochemistry of carbon compounds"Tata McGrall Hill,Bombay.
- Singh and kapoor,"Basic and pharmaceutical practical chemistry",Vallabh prakashan,Delhi.
An outline of important physical and chemical properties,medicinal and pharmaceutical uses,storage conditions of the following classes of drugs included in the Indian pharmacopoeia (The discussion of assays should be excluded).
- Pharmaceutical Aids & Necessities-
- Acids & Bases-Hydrochloric acid,sulphuric acid,Nitric acid,Phosphoric acid,sodium hydroxide,strong ammonia solution,sodalime
- Buffers-standard buffer solutions
- Anti-oxidants-Hypophosphorous acid,sulphur dioxide,sodium-bisulphite,sodium metabisulphite,sodium thiosulphate,sodium nitrite,Nitrogen.
- Water-purified water,water for injection,sterile water for injection.
- Gastro-intestinal Agents-
- Acidifying agents-Dilute hydrochloric acid
- Antacids-sodium bicarbonate,Aluminium hydroxide gel,calcium carbonate,Milk of magnesia,Magnesium oxide,Magnesium trisilicate,Combination antacid preparations.
- Protectives & Adsorbants-Bismuth subcarbonate,Bismuth subgallate,Kaolin,Activated charcoal.
- Saline cathartics-sodium hydrogen phosphate,sodiumphosphate,sodium potassium tartrate,Milk of magnesia,Magnesium sulphate.
- Major Intra and Extracellular Electrolytes-
- Electrolytes used for replacement therapy-sodium chloride and its preparations,potassium chloride and its preparations,calcium gluconate,calcium Lactate,Dibasic calcium phosphate,Tribasic calcium phosphate,Magnesium sulphate.
- Physiological acid-base balance and electrolytes used in acid-base therapy,sodium acetate,potassium acetate,sodium and potassium bicarbonate,sodium dihydrogen phosphate,sodium citrate,Ammonium chloride.
- Electrolyte combination therapy.
- Essential and trace ions-
- Iron and haematinics-Ferrous fumarate,Ferrous gluconate,ferrous sulphate,iron-dextran injection,ferric ammonium citrate.
- Mineral replacements-Iodine,potassium iodide.
- Topical agents-
- Protectives-Talc,Zinc oxide,calamine,Titanium dioxide
- Anti-microbials and astringents-Hydrogen peroxide solution potassium permanganate,iodine,silver nitrate,mild and strong silver protein,yellow mercuric oxide,ammoniated mercury,sublimed sulphur,precipitated sulphur,boric acid,antimony potassium tartrate.
- Astringents-Aluminium hydrochloride,Alum,Zinc sulphate.
- Sources of impurities in pharmaceutical substances,Limit tests for chloride,sulphate,iron,lead,heavy metals and arsenic included in Indian pharmacopoeia
- Complexing and chelating agents-Disodium edetate,Dimercaprol.
- Dental products-Sodium fluoride,Calcium carbonate,Dibasic calcium phosphate.
- Gases and vapours-
- Anaesthetic gas-Nitrous oxide
- Respiratory stimulants-Aromatic spirit of ammonia,Ammonium carbonate,carban dioxide.
- Radio pharmaceuticals-
- Biological applications of radioactive drugs-cobalt compounds,Gold compounds,Iodine preparations,phosphorous preparations.
- Radio-opaque contrast media-Barium sulphate.
- Miscellaneous agents-
- Expectorants-Ammonium chloride,Potassium iodide.
- Antidotes-sodium nitrate,sodium thiosulphate,Activated charcoal,Light kaolin.
- Limit tests for chloride,sulphate,iron and arsenic in inorganic pharmaceutical compounds
- Identification and purification tests of selected inorganic pharmaceutical compounds.
- J.H.Block,E.B.Roche,T.O.Soine & C.O.Wilson, 'Inorganic medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry' Lea & Febiger.
- N.C.Choudhary,'Pharmaceutical chemistry-I' Valabhrakashan,Delhi.
- P.Gundu Rao,'Inorganic Pharmaceutical chemistry' Vallabh prakashan,Delhi.
- H.K.singh,V.K.Kapoor, 'Basic and pharmaceutical chemistry' Vallabh prakashan,Delhi.
- R.D.Gupta,'A Textbook of Analytical chemistry for Degree students' The National Book House,Jeoni Mandi,Agra.
- Indian Pharmacopoeia,Govt. of India,Ministry of Health.
- L.M.Atherden,Bently and Driver's, "A Textbook of pharmaceutical chemistry", Oxford university press.
- A.H.Backett and J.B. stanlake,"Pharmaceutical chemistry" Part I,The Anthlono press,university of London.
- Pharmacy profession-Pharmacy as a career,pharmaceutical education,pharmacopoeia of india & other countries (B.P.,U.S.P. & International etc.).
- Introduction to different dosage forms,their classification with examples,their relative application.
- Definitions,general formulation,manufacturing procedures and official products of solutions,aromatic waters,syrups,spirits,elixirs,glycerides,lotions,suppositories,semisolids and powders.
- Dosage forms necessities:Introduction,classification and uses of following additives in formulation of different dosage forms:surfactants,Hydrocolloids,Bases & Vehicles,stabilizers,Diluents,organoleptic additives,manufacturing additives etc.
- Crude extracts:Infusion,decoction,tincture and extracts.Methods of preparation of dry,soft and liquid extracts of IP.
- Allergenic extracts:Types of allergens,preparation of extracts,testing and standardization of extracts.
Practicals based on theory such as:
- Aromatic waters:Cinnamon water (B.P),Peppermint water (B.P.)Chloroform water (I.P)camphor water (I.P.)Conc.Dill water (I.P.)Conc.peppermint water (B.P.)conc.Cinnamon Water (B.P.)
- Infusions-Infusion of quassia (I.P.)Conc.Compound infusion of chirata (I.P.)conc.compound infusion of Quassia (B.P.).
- Spirits:Aromatic spirit of ammonia (I.P.).spirit of pudina (I.P.) Spirit of Nitrous ether (B.P.).
- Tinctares:tinctures of orange (B.P.)Compound tincture of Benzoin (I.P.) Compound Tincture of cardamom (I.P.).
- Solutions:strong solution of ammonium acetate (I.P.) Surgical solution of chlorinated soda (I.P.) Aqueous solution of Iodine (I.P.) Strong solution of iodine (I.P.) Strong solution of lead subacetate,(I.P.) Coal tar solution (I.P).Solution of Ferrous Iodine (B.P.C.) Arsenical solution (I.P.)
- Glycerites-Glycerin of Tannic acid (I.P.).Glycerin of Borax (I.P.) Glycerin of Boric Acid (I.P.).Glycerin of starch (I.P.)
- Syrups-Simple syrup (I.P.)syrup of orange (I.P.) Syrup of Lemon (I.P.)syrup of Vasaka(I.P.) Syrup of Tolu (I.P.)Compound syrup of Ferrous phosphate (I.P.).
- Elixirs:Elixir piperazine citrate (BP.C) cascara Elixir (B.P.C.) Paracetamol Elixir paedictric (B.P.C.)
- Powders:Simple & compound.
1.4 Pharmaceutical Engineering (Principles of general Engineering,Environmental Pollution,Safety Hazards).
- Remington's Pharmaeutical sciences,Martin (Mack).
- Mithal,A Text book of pharmaceutical formulation,Vallabh prakashan,Delhi.
- M.L.Schroff,General Pharmacy series.
- Pharmacopoeia of India,Govt.of India Ministry of Health.
- Ansel:Introduction to pharmaeutical dosage forms.
- Material of Pharmaceutical Plant Construction:
Factors affecting selection of material for pharmaceutical metals-ferrous metals-cast-iron-steels,stainless steels,non ferrous metals,copper,copper alloys,aluminium,lead tin,silver,nickel,chromium,non-metals,Inorganic-glass,stonewarestone,slate brick & concrete,Asbestos,Organic-Plastic,rubber and Timber.
- Corrosion & Its prevention:Introduction,types of corrosion,causes of corrosion,theories of corrosion,methods of prevention of corrosion.
- Industrial Hazards & Safety precautions:Mechanical,chemical,electrical,fire,dust hazards,safety requirements,fire-extinguishers,accident records.
- Fluid Flow:Types of flow,types of pressure,total energy & total mechanical energy balance,losses in mechanical energy fluids,measurement of flow rate orifice,venturi,pitotrota meter (Mathematical problems included).
- Heat transfer:Modes of heat transfer,conduction Fourier's law,resistances in series & parallel,parallel mean area & mean temp differences,convection concept of film,overall evaluation of individual film coefficient,radiation station boltzman law (Mathematical problems included).
- Stoichiometry:Unit operation and processes,material and energy balances,application of gas laws,combustion calculation,lime kiln performances (mathematical problems included).
- Heating Media:lagging-fuels solids,liquid gases,steam as heating medium properties & uses of steam,steam traps,pressure reducing valves,heating by electricity,steam heated heat exchanges,lagging,condensation.
- Transportation of Materials:Solids,intermittent & continuous methods in vertical,horizontal & inclined planes.Liquids pipelines,fitting valves,pumps,Gases-fans,blowers-compressor evaporators.
- Humidification & Dehumidification:definition of various terms,adiabatic conditions,humidity charts,determination of humidity,methods of increasing and decreasing humidity.
- Refrigeration and air-conditioning application in pharmacy.
- Process variables & Elements of automatic process control:Measurement of variables like flow,liquid levels,temp.,pressure,vacuum,Introduction to process control systems.
- Storage of Materials:Solids outdoor storage bins-siol indoor storage in warehouse;liquids storage in tanks,storage of volatile liquids,gases-gas holder cylinder.
- Packaging of Materials:Function,qualities of package,hazards encountered by package,protection to be given by package containers,closures,foils,and pressure packs for pharmaceutical products.
- Environmental pollution:An Introduction.
1.5 Pharmaceutical Biology
- Cooper & Gunn's Tutorial pharmacy.CBS publishers & distributors,Delhi.
- Leon Lachman & other,'The Theory & Practice of Inustrial pharmacy, Varghese publishing house,Bombay.
- Elementary chemical Engineering-Peter's
- Perry-Handbook of chemical engineering.
- Scope and significance of biology in pharmaceutical sciences.Modern concept of Biology i.e. Molecular,physiological and biochemical aspects.
- Classification of plants with special reference to the following families,their diagnostic characteristic with emphasis on plants of medicinal and economic importance.
- General structure,physiology,life history and medico-economic importance of
- General morphology of shoot,flower,fruit and their importance & classification.
- Structure of Typical plant cells and their non living cell inclusions,organisation of cells into different plant tissues.
- Anatomical study of normal monocot and Dicot Root,stem and leaf including secondary growth of dicot stem and root.
- Macro and micro plant nutrients,photosynthesis and its mechanism.
- General structure and life history of parasites and Amoeba,Entamoeba,Trypanosoma,Plasmodium,Schistosoma,Taenia,Ascaris.
- General structure and life history of insects including their relation to man and medicinal crops, of cockroch,Mosquito,Housefly,silkworm and Mites.
- Care and use of microscope.
- Non-living cell inclusions and their micro chemical tests.
- Preparation,microscopic examination and description of transverse section of stem,root and leaf of monocot and dicot plants (Normal strutures)
- Morphological characteristics of the plant families mentioned in theory.
- Preparation of herbarium sheets.
- Morphology of flowers and fruits.
- structure of human parasites and insects mentioned in theory with the help of specimens and microscopic slides.
1.6 Pharmaceutics-II (Dispensing of Medication)
- Y.D.Tyagi-Text Book of Botany.
- A.C. Dutta-Text Book of Botany.
- Khetrapal & Kotpal-Invertibrates.
- H.S.Youngken-Pharmaceutical Botany, Pub.The Balkistan company Toranto.
- K.Easou-Anatomy of seed plants,John Willey and sons.
- Introduction-Definition,General dispensing procedure,Sources of errors and inaccuracies in dispensing,sources of information.
- Types of dispensed preparations,containers,closures and labelling for dispensed products.
- Dispensing of proprietary medicines.
- Pharmaceutical calculations-Different systems of weights and measures,reducing and enlarging of recipes,percentage solutions,allegation,alcohol dilution,proof spirits,isotonic solutions.
- Medication Order-Definition,various parts,reading & understanding of prescription.
- Posology-Factors influencing doses,calculation of doses,doses of important commonly prescribed drugs,pharmaceutical latin terms.
- Principles involved and procedure adopted in dispensing of the following categories.
- Powdered and oral unit dosage forms
- ENT Preparations.
- Incompatibility:Physical,chemical and therapeutic.Methods adopted in corrections.
- Future trends in Dispensing.
Dispensing of atleast 50 products covering a wide range of preparations such as-solutions,suspensions,emulsions,creams,jpowders & oral unit dosage forms,ointments,pastes & jellies,suppositories & incompatible prescriptions.
1.7 Human Anatomy,Physiology (including Pathophysiology) & Health Education.
- Cooper and Gunn's Dispensing for pharmaceutical students' CBS publishers and distributors,Delhi.
- Jain & Sharma, 'Dispensing for Pharmacy students'
- British pharmaceutical Codex.
- Pharmacopoeia of India.
- British pharmacopoeia
- United states pharmacopoeia.
- PUSA Dispensing of Medication.
- ROBERT & King Dispensing of Medications.
- Scope of anatomy & physiology,definition of various terms used in anatomy.
- Structure of cell,functions of its components.
- Elementary tissues of human body,epithelial,connective,muscular & nervous tissue.
- Structure & function of skeleton,joints-classification,functions & their movements.
- Skeletal muscle:Names,position & functions of various skeletal muscle,Neuromuscular junction-physiology of muscle contraction.
- Blood0composition & functions of blood element,blood group.coagulation of blood.
- Lymph & Lymph Glands-Their position,name & function.
- Cardiovascular system-Heart,blood vessels,circulation,cardiac cycle,Heart sounds,blood pressure & its regulation.
- Digestive system-Gross anatomy of alimentary canal,functions of different parts including liver & pancreas,various section (composition & function).Role of vitamins in body.
- Respiratory system-Anatomy of different parts.Physiology and regulation of respiration.
- Centraorvous system-Functions of different parts of brain,reflez physiology of nerve impulse,neurotransmitters.Anatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system.
- Urinary system-various parts structure and functions of kidney.physiology of urine formation.
- Reproductive system-Anatomy & Physiology of male and female reproductive system.
- Endocrinal glands-Name,position and functions,physiological role of their secretions.
- Elementary knowledge of sense organs of taste,smell,vision,skin-structure and function.
- Health Education-First aid treatment in shock and snake bite,concept of health & disease,balanced diet,composition and its importance,family planning,brief outline of common infections & contagious diseases,preventive measures.
- Pathophysiology of some common diseases including pain & inflammation,salient symptoms to understand diseases like tuberculosis,hepatitis,Rheumatoid Arthritis,Gour,Epilepsy,Cardiovascular Disease,diabetesmpepticulcer & hypertension.
- Study of human skeleton.
- Study of different systems with the help of charts and models.
- Microscopic study of different tissues.
- Haemoglobin estimation in blood,determination of bleeding time,clotting time,RBC Count, T.L.C.D.L.C. & E.S.R.
- Recording of body temperature,pulse,heart rate and blood pressure.
- Physiological experiments,on muscle nerve preparation.
1.8 Mathematics (Calculus & Bio-statistics)
- Gray's Anatomy-war wick and williams.langmen.
- Sahana's text book of anatomy
- Samson wright's-Applied physiology-Keeli and Neil.
- C.Chatterjee-A text book of physiology.
- Best & Tayler-physiological basis of medical physiology.
- Evan's-Principles of human physiology.
- Aguyton-A text book of practical physiology.
- V.G.Ranade-A text book of practical physiology.
- Different calculus-continuity and limit,Differentiation derivability and derivative,R.H. derivatives and L.H. derivatives differentials,general theorems of derivation,Derivatives of trigonometric functions (Excluding inverse trionometric and hyperbolic functions)logarithmic differentiation,partial differentiation.
- Integral calculus-Integration as inverse process of differentiation,definite integrals,integration by substitution,integration by parts,integration of algebraic functions.
- Differential equations:Formation of a differential equation.order and degree derivation of a differential equation.
Differential equation of first order and first degrees,linear equation with constant coefficients.Homogeneous linear equation (first mentod of solution only).Simultaneous differential equations which are linear and of the first order.Laplace transformations,solution of ordinary and partial differential equations by transform methods.
- Tables and Graphs 'Life tables'only.
- Linear correlation coefficient,pearsons's assumptions and causality.
Regression of Y on X and X on Y standard error estimate.
- Correlation coefficient:Linear and curvilinear correlation.
- Sampling:Non-Probability and probability samples,sampling distribution,confidence intervals,computing 99% and 95% fiducial limits from tables of areas and ordinates of normal curve.
- Probability rules,binomial experiments, 'Z' score computing 't' tests and analysis of variance.
All calculations should be illustrated with examples from true laboratory pharmacological experimental models.
2.1 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III (Organic chemistry-II including Heterocyclic and Natural Products)
- David S.Philips, 'Basic statistics for health science student's Freeman and company,san francisco.
- Ray & sharma, 'Mathematical Statistics.'
- Bansal,Agrawal & Bhargava 'Differential calculus-I' Jaipur publishing House.
- Bansal,Agrawal & Bhargava, 'Integral calculus'Jaipur publishing House.
- Bansal & Dhami 'Dhami 'Differential equations-I'Jaipur publishing House.
- Gupta & Goyal'Laplace Transformation'Jaipur publishing House.
- Aromaticity-Stability of benzene ring,Orbital picture of benzene,Huckel rule.
- Electrophilic aromatic substitution-Effect of substitutent groups,classification of substituent groups,orientation in disubstituted benzene,Mechanism of nitration,sulfonation,friedel-craft alkylation,Halogenation,protonation,Mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution,
Reactivity and orientation,Theory of reactivity,Theory of orientation,Electron release viz resonance,Effect of halogen on electrophilic aromatic substitution.
- Arenes and their derivatives-The aromatic ring as a substituent, Aromatic-aliphatic hydrocarbons,structure and nomenclature of arenes and their derivatives,Friedel-craft alkylation,Mechanism & limitations,Reactions of alkyl benzene,Oxidation,Electrophilic aromatic substitution,Halogenation,side chain halogenation,Resonance stabilization of benzyl radical.
- Nucleophilic acyl substitution-Role of carbonyl group,Alkyl v/s acyl,Reaction of acid chlorides,acid anhydrides,amides & esters.
- Nucleophilic aromatic substituion-Bimolecular displacement mechanism,Reactivity and orientation in nucleophilic aromatic substitution,Electron withdrawal by resonance,Nuclophilic substitution,Aliphatic and aromatic,Elimination-addition mechanism for nucleophilic aromatic substitution.
- Structure,physical properties,Nomenclature,Prep. & properties of phenol,carboxylic acid,Amines,Nephthalene,Phenathracene & anthrocene.
- Heterocyclics-General nomenclature,occurrence and Pharma-ceutical importance of the following heterocycles-Furan,Thiophene,Pyrrole,Oxazole,Isoxazole,Pyrazole,Pyrazine,jpyridine,pyrimidine,pyridazine,Indole,Bezofuran,Quinoline,Isoquinoline,Purine,phenothiazine,Benzodiazepine.
- Natural products-
- Carbohydrates-Brief chemistry,classification and qualitative tests.
- Amino acids & proteins-Brief chemistry,classification and qualitative tests.
- Fats & oils-Composition and properties,Determination and significance of acetyl value,acid value,saponification value and iodine value.
- Alkaloids-Brief chemistry (at least one from each group) and structure elucidation.
- Nucleic acids-Elementary knowledge.
- Terpenes-Classification and structure elucidation of one from each class,
- Preparation of simple organic compounds involving sulphonation,Nitration,Acetylation,Halogenation,Oxidation,Reduction (diazotization),Elimination.
- Qualitative analysis of selected natural products-Alkaloids,carbohydrates,Proteins,Amino acids & Tannins.
- Analysis of essential oils & fats.
2.2 Pharmaceutical Analysis-I
- R.T.Morrison & R.N.Boyd,"Organic chemistry" Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd.,New Delhi.
- I.L.Finar,"Organic chemistry", Vol-I & II,E.L.B.S.London.
- F.G.Mann & B.C.Saunders, "Practical organic chemistry", Longmans,Green and co.Ltd.,London.
- B.S.Furniss, et.al,"Vogal's Textbook of "Practical organic chemistry",E.L.B.S.,London.
- Wingrove A.S & Caret R.L.,"Organic chemistry", Harper & Row Publishers,New York.
- R.M.Acheson "An introduction to the chemistry of Heterocyclic compounds", Interscience publications,New York.
- Silverstein & Bassler, "Spectroscopic Identification of organic compounds".
- Gutschi,"Chemistry of carbonyl compounds", prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd.,New Delhi.
- Accuracy & precision,classification of errors,minimization of errors,rejection of doubtful values,significant figures & computations,mean (average) deviation,standard deviation,calibration of analytical equipments.
- Titrimetric Analysis-Theoretical considerations,classification of reactions in titrimetric analysis,standard solutions,primary and secondary standards.
- Aqueous Acid-base Titrations-Neutralization,indicators,mixed indicators,universal indicators,Assay of sod bicarbonate sod. carbonate,Ammonia solution,Boric Acid,Ammonium chloride Ammoniated Mercury.
- Non-aqueous Acid-base Titrations-Non aqueous acid-base chemistry,solvents for non-aqueous titrations,indicators for non-aqueous titrations,determination of organic acid & bases in non-aqueous media.Assay of phenobarbitone & sulphathiazole.
- Complexation Titration-Introduction,stability of complexes,factors influencing the stability of complexes,types of D.T.A. titrations,Assay of calcium gluconate,Magnesium sulphate,Zinc sulphate.
- Precipitation Titration-Introduction,precipitation reactions,determination of endpoint in precipitation reactions.Assay of sodium chloride injection,yellow mercuric oxide.
- Oxidation-reduction titrations including iodometry & iodimetry-Introduction,determination of the end point in oxidation reduction titrations.
- Internal oxidation-reduction.
- Self indicators.
- External indicators
assay of ferrous sulphate,hydrogen peroxide solution,iodine solution,chlorinated lime,copper-sulphate.
- Gravimetric Analysis-Introduction,jprecipitation methods,conditions of precipitation,filtration & washing of the precipitate.drying and ignition of the precipitate,Assay of sodium sulphate,Magnesium sulphate.
- Miscellaneous methods:Sodium nitrate Titration.
Assay of Benzocaine,Dapsone,sodium amino salicylate sulphamethoxazole.
- Introduction to the use and care of apparatus & equipment for simple chemical analysis.
- Selected experiments on titrimetric and gravimetric analysis based on theory.
- Pharmacopoeia of India,Govt.of India,Ministry of Health,Delhi.
- G.H.Jeffery,J.Bassett,J.Mendham,R.C.Denney,Volgel's Text book of quantitative chemical analysis,E.L.B.S.London.
- A.H.Beckett & J.B.Stenlake, 'Practical pharmaceutical chemistry,part-I, The Athlene press University of London.
- K.A.Conners,A text book of pharamaceutical analysis,Juhu willey & Sons.
- L.G,Chatter,'Pharmaceutical chemistry, Vol.I & II, Marshal Dekker.
- Introduction to microbiology and scope,history.
- Classification of Microbes and their taxonomy,bacteria,viruses,protozoa,fungi,actinomyetes,Rickettssia,Spirocheates.
- Nutrition,Cultivation,Isolation and Identification of Bacteria,Viruses,Protozoa and fungi.
- Microbial genetics & variations,bacterial enzymes.
- Infection and factors influencing infections,Host microbe-interaction,Natural resistance and Nonspecific defence machanism.Theoritical aspects of immunity.
- Common diseases,their mode of transmission,methods of control,causative-organism & their treatment and precise knowledge of following diseases:-Rheumatic fever Pneumonia,Gonorrhoea,Cerebrospinal-Meningitis,Diphtheria,Typhoid fever,Bacillary and Amoebic dysentry,Cholera,Plague,Influenza,pertussis,whooping-cough,Gas-Gangrene,Tetanus,Tuberculosis,Leprosy,Relapsing fever,syphillis,Rickettsia,Rabies,Poliomyelitis,Dangue,small pox, chicken pox Measles,Mumps and Malaria.
- Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods.
- Sterilization,Different methods,evaluation of sterilization methods,sterility testing of pharmaceutical products.
- General methods of preparation,standardization,preservation,storage and used of vaccine,sera & diagnostic agents:-Diphtheria Antitoxin,Gasgangrene Antitoxin,Tetanus antitoxin.Chloera vaccine,plague vaccine,B.C.G.Vaccine, D.P.T.Vaccine,oral poliovaccine,Measels vaccine,small pox vaccine,Typhoid vaccine,Typhus vaccine yellow fever vaccine,Whooping cough vaccine Anti-diphtheria serum,gas-gangrene serum,Antirabies serum,antivenom serum.
- Microbiological standardization of antibiotics and vitamins.
- Industrial Microbiology-Introduction,scope,Fermentation technology,Production of Alcohols,Acetic Acid,Citric acid,Penicillins,Tetracycline.
- General knowledge of Microscope.
- Laboratory preparation of culture media,Isolation and maintenance of pure culture.
- Identification of Bacteria-Morphological & cultural characteristics and also of the other micro-organisms.
- Test for sterility of Apparatus,Injections,Transfusions,Oils and powders etc.
- Evaluation of antiseptic and disinfectants.
- Test for the potency of antibiotics.
- Bacteriological examination of water,milk and food products.
2.4 Pharmaceutics III (Physical Pharmacy)
- Frobisher-Text Book of microbiology.
- Michal,Chan & Kring-Text book of microbiology,Mc.Graw Hill.
- Cooper & Gunn-Tutorial Pharmacy.
- N.C.Day-Medical Bacteriology.
- Pharmacopoeia of India,Britain and USA.
- Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences.
- Prescot & Dunn-Industrial Microbiology.
- Salle-Laboratory Manual of Bacteriology.
- Casida L.E.:Industrial Microbiology;Tata Mc.Graw Hill Book Co.Bombay.
- Intermolecular forces & states of matter:-Binding forces between molecules,states of matter,the gasous state,the liquid state,solid amorphous crystralline state,latent heats and vapour pressure,sublimation,relative humidity,phase equilibria and phase rule.
- Micromeritics-Particle size distribution,average particle size,number and weight distribution,particle number,methods for determining particle size,optical microscopy,sieving,sedimentation,particle volume measurement,particle shape,specific surface methods for determining surface area,permeability method,adsorption methods,derived,properties of powder,porosity,packing arrangement,densities,bulkness,flow properties.
- Solubility & Distribution Phenomenon:Solubility,factors affecting solubility,expression of solubility,dissolution rate,solvent-solute interaction,polar and non polar solvents,solubility of gases in liquid,liquid in liquid,effect of pressure,temperature salting-out,chemical reasons,solubility calculations,ideal and real solution,colligative properties and mol. wt. derterminations,Miscibility,influence of foreign substances,dielectric constant and solubility,solubility of solid in liquids,ideal & non ideal solutions,solution and association in solution,solubility of slightly soluble and week electrolytes,Handerson haselbatch equation,influence of solvents on the solubility of drugs,combined effect of pH and solvents,preservation,action of weak acids,distribution of solutes between immiscible solvents,effect of ionic dissociation and molecular association on partition co-efficient & drug action.
- Surface Phenomenon:Liquid interfaces:surface and interfacial tension,surface free energy,measurement of surface and interfacial tension,spreading co-effcient,absorption at liquid interfaces,surface active agents,HLB,solubilisation,detergency,adsorption at solid interfaces,complex films,electrical properties.
- Viscosity & Rheology:Newtonian system-law of flow,kinematic viscosity,effect of temp. non-newtonian system-pseudo plastic dilatic,thixotropy,measurement of thixotropy,thixotropy in formulation,determination of viscosity capillary,falling ball,rotational viscometers.
- Colloidal Dispersion & Gels:Dispersion system size and shape of colloidal particles,pharmaceutical applications, type-lyophillic,lyophobic association colloidals,optical,kinetic and electrical properties of colloids,gel-structure properties,applications.
- Coarse Dispersion & Emulsions:Interfacial properties of suspended particles,setteling in suspensions,theory of sedimentation effect of brownian movement,sedimentation of flocculated particles,wetting of particles,controlled flocculation,flocculation in structural vehicles-Rheological consideration.
- Complexation & chelation,types of complexes,its application.
- Average particle size determination.
- Bulk density/True density.
- Angle of repose.
- Partition co-efficient.
- Methods/Surface tension determination method.
- Methods to determine viscosity of newtonian and non-newtonian fluids.
- HLB value determination.
- Solubility of solid in liquid.
- Solubility of liquid in liquid.
- Rate of sedimentation of flocculated and non-flocculated suspension.
- Cooper & Gunns Tutorial Pharmacy.
- Martin Physical Pharmacy.
- Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences.
- Introduction:definition,scope & History.
- General Pharmacology:Routes of drug administration absorption,distribution,metabolism and excretion,molecular mechanism of drug action,theories of receptors,dose response relationship,afinity constants.
- Factors affecting effect/dose of a drug,adverse drug reactions,drug interactions,drug evaluation.
- Autonomic Nervous system:adrenergic drugs and adrenergic blockers,cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs,drugs acting on autonomic ganglion,skeletal muscle relaxants.
1. Central Nervous system:Alcohol,local and general anaesthetics,narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics,drugs used in gout and rheumatoid arthritis,antiepileptic drugs,sedatives and hypnotics,C.N.S. stimulants,antiparkinson drugs,psycopharmacological agents (antipsychotics,antianxiety, anti-depressants,drugs and memory).
- Introduction to experimental pharmacology
-Preparation of different solutions for experiments.
-Choice of animals and anaesthetics.
-Commonly used instruments in experiments
-To study analgesic,anticonvulsant & local anaesthetic effects of drugs.
- Effect of drugs on rabbit's eye.
- Effect of routes of drug administration.
2.6 Business Mathematics
- Satoskar and Bhandarkar,"Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics".
- F.S.K.Barar,"Essentials of Pharmacotherapeutics".
- Alfred Goodman Gilman Theodore W.Roll,Aian S.Nies,Palmer Taylor,"Goodman Gilman's.The pharmacological basis of therapeutics".
- Laurance and Bennett,"Clinical Pharamacology
- Crossland,"Lewis Pharmacology".
- Bowman and Rand,"Textbook of Pharmacology".
- Kulkarni,"A handbook of experimental pharmacology".
- M.N.Ghosh,"Fundamentals of experimental Pharmacology".
- Perry W.L.M.E & S.Livingstone Ltd. "Pharmacological experiments on isolated preparations".
- Seth,Dadka and Kamat, "Selected topics in experimental pharmacology".
- Burn,"Practical Pharmacology".
(including Budgeting,Costing,Accountancy and Audit).
Sets relations,functions,equation of straight line;Derivatives and finite differences and their applications to optimization,linear equations and matrices;linear programming-geometrical and simplex methods;Trahsportation and assignment problems;Theory of games-solution of matrix games,Decision under incertainty-mi-nimax and bay's strategies,quening theory-Quenelength,waiting time in poission quenes;mathematical and simulation models.
- Accountancy:Principles of Double Entry system,Introduction,Record of transactions-Journal and ledger,subsidiary bookis,Trial balance and rectification of Error Bills of Exchange,Final Accounts,Depreciation Consignment Accounts.
Joint stock company accounts-Issue of shares and debentures and elementary knowledge of final accounts of a company.
Insurance claims,empties containers elementary knowledge of hire purchase system.
- Cost and management Accounting:Elementary knowledge of preparing sales,cash,production and flexible budgets.Cost ascertainment,various elements of cost sheet preparation,statement of cost.Marginal costing:-Elementary knowledge of cash flow statement and funds flow statements,computation of various ratios and analysis of financial statements.
- Budgeting:Meaning,importance and types of budgets.
- Auditing:Meaning,objects,vouching,internal control rights,duties and liabilities of an auditor Auditor and location of errors and frauds.
2.7 Computer applications
- Introduction to Accountancy:Gerwal,T.S.
- Cost Accounting-S.P.Jain & N.L.Narang.
- Management Accounting:S.N.Maheshwari
- R.G.Saxena,Principles and practice of auditing.
- I.M.Pandey:financial management,Vikas Publishers.
- Khan & Jain,Management Accounting,Tata Mc Graw hill.
Introduction to Computer science
Flow Charting and Algorithm Development.
- Simple model of computer and its working,parts of computer:cpu,memory,input/output devices.
- Computer languages and their hierarchay Machine language,assembly language,high level language,comparison of high level and low level language.
- Introduction to microcomputers.
- Concept of operating system.
Introduction to Computer Programming
- Definition and properties of algorithm.
- Flow chart symbols and their use.
- Examples of efficient algorithm and flow chart.
- Conversion of algorithm/flow chart to high level language.
- BASIC language:BASIC character set,constants,variables,expressions.
- Statements and system commands in BASIC.
- Entering and editing BASIC program.
- Control structures,repetition statements (loops),nested loop,definite & indefinite loops,selection statements,array.
- Functions and subroutines.
- Concept of files:Program files and data files.Sequential files and random access files.
- Elementary BASIC programs for numeric and string processing.
Introduction to Business Data Processing
Computer Application:scientific research,business application,industrial application,engineering design,meterology,medicine,education,information system.
- System:Definition,characteristics,elements of system,types of system (physical & abstract) (open & colsed),information system.
- Introduction to business data organization:production,stock control,costing,purchase,marketing,finance,need of computers in modern business organization.
- Data capture and validation:Input/output devices,special emphasis on key to disk systems),Input/output form design,documentation and its importance,simple tests to check validity of data (checking format,type and range of data).
- Security:Difinition,need,threats to system security,control measures (use of passwords),recovery of data.
- Business files:Master files,transaction files,sorting,searching,merging,matter summarising of files,file organization (sequential,random,dynamic).
- Concept of databse and database management system:objectives of database management system advantages and disadvantages of database management system,examples of DBMS package (DBASE III).
Simple programs in Basic
Programming in DBASE III
- Programs to calculate simple and complex arithematic expressions.
- Programs using control structures.
- Programs using loops and nested loops.
- Programs using functions and subroutines.
- Programs using arrays.
- simple Programs using files.
- Programs using memory variables and data field variables.
- Programs to calculate mathematical expressions.
- Programs using inbuilt functions exABA,INT,SQRT,MIN,MAX,LOG,EXP,ROUND etc.
- Use of commands COUNT,SUM,AVERAGE,TOTAL in direct and indirect model (in Programs)mode.
- Managing database:Creation of database,insertion,modification and deletion of records.
- Programs showing sequntial and direct access of files.
- Programs using index files.
- Generation of simple reports (through report processing teature of DBASE or through programs).
- Programs with user defined menu system.
- Atleast one program using Master and Transaction files.
- Computer and commonsense
-Reger hunt and john shelly,printice hall of india.
- Programming with BASIC
-Goottfried,Schaum series,McGraw Hill.
- BASIC Programming:self Taught
-Seymour C.Hirsch,Prentice Hall of India.
- Business Data Processing
Clifton,Prentice Hall of india.
- Introduction to computer science.
- System Analysis and Design
- Understanding DBASE III
-Alon Simpson,BPB Publication.
- Mastering DBASE III
2.8 Engineering Drawing (Practicals only).
- Construction of scales.Conventional representation of materials,lettering.
- orthographic projections of machine parts,missing views,Sectional views of simple machine parts. (Emphasis to be given to first angle projection method).
- Osp,etroc/rpkectopms of simple Machine Parts.
- Conventional representation of common features,dimensioning of drawings,blue or ammonia printing processes.
- Assembly drawing of simple pharmaceutical machines.
(Elevation,plan and section).
- Drawing of plan,elevation etc.in full and sections of Pharmaceutical equipments-drier,mixers,distillation columns etc.
- Drawing of flow sheet for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and layout of factories.
- Drawing for schools and colleges-A.B.I.S.Publications.
- Machine Drawing-Mathur M.L. and Lakshmi Narayan.
- Machine Drawing-N.D.Bhatt.
- A manual of Engineering drawing for students and draftsman french and vierck.
3.1 Pharm Chem.IV (Medicinal Chemistry-I)
- Physical chemical properties and Biologic activity:Drug receptor interaction.
- Receptor site theory:the following topics shall be treated covering outline of synthetic procedures (of selected drugs),uses, S.A.R. including physicochemical & stearic aspects,metabolism and mode of action.
- Steroids-Nomenclature,structure and conformational aspects of the steroids sd. cholesterol,stigmasterol,ergosterol diosgenin,hecogenin,steroidal alkaloids,Androgens,Testosterone,methyltestosterone and Methandienone,estrogens & progestational agents-mestranol,oestradiol,stilboesterol Ethisterone,megesterol,progesterone,Gulcocorticoids,Cortisone,hydrocortisone,Betamethasone,prednisolone,digitalis cardiac glycosides-Digoxin,Digitoxin,ouabain.
- Vitamins-Classification,general chemistry and structural formulae of vitamins included in I.P.,Detailed chemistry of Vit. A, Vit.D, Vit.B1, Vit.B2,and Vit.C.
- Prostaglandins-A preliminary introduction.
- Sulphonamides:Sulphacetamide,sulphisoxazole,sulphamethoxazole,sulphamethoxypyridazine and phthalysulphathiazole,Trimethoprim.
- Antibiotics-Penicillin & its derivatives,streptomycin,Erythromycin,Chloramphenicol Rifampin,Tetracycline,
- Antiamoebic agents-Di-iodohydroxy quinoline,diloxanide,metronidazole,Tinidazole,Emetine,carbazone.
- Anthelmintics-Niridazole,lucanthone,pyrantel,mebendazole,Bephenium hydroxynaphtinoate,Thiabendazole,Diethylcarbamzine.
- Antiseptics & disinfectants-Chlorophene,Hexylresorcinol,hexachlorophene,jpovidone-iodine,chloramine-T, Halazone,Thiomersal,Benzalkonium chloride,cetyl pyridinium chloride,malachitegree gentian violet,chlorhexidine.
- Urinary antiseptics Nitrofurantoin and Nalidixic acid.
- Antiviral agents-Amantadine,Interferon,trilorone,Acylovir,Idoxuridine,Vidarabine,methisazone,Arildone.
- General anaesthetics-Diethyl ether,chloroform,halothane,Ketamine,Thiopentone,Fluroxene,methoxyflurane.
- Analgesics-opiate analgesics-Morphine,codeine,Non-opiate analgesics-meperidine.
- Nonsteroidal anti-nflammatory agents and antipyretics-Aspirin,salicylamide,aminopyrin,phenylbutazone,Oxyphenbytazone,mefenamic acid,indomethacin,Tolmetin,Ibuprofen,Naproxen,piroxicam,analgin,paracetamol.
- Hypnotics & sedatives-Phenobarbitone,pentobarbtone,chloralhydrate,meprobamate,glutethimide,lorazepam,Nitrazepam,Diazepam,cyprazepam.
- Wilson & Gisvold's,Textbook of organic medicinal & Pharmaceutical chemistry J.B.Lippincott Co.
- W.O.Foye,principles of medicinal chemistry
- M.E.Wolff,Burger's medicinal chemistry,John witey and sons.
- Remington's pharmaceuutical sciences
- Separation and identification of organic mixtures containing not more than two compounds.
- Typical synthesis of drugs & drug intermediates by use of the following types of reactions-
- Chlorosulphonation-saccharin & sulfa
- Amination by reduction.
- Vogels Textbook of practical organic chemistry,ELBS.
- Mann & Saunders-Practical organic chemistry.
3.2 Pharmaceutics IV (Phamr.Technology-II)
(including some aspects of Biological Pharmacy).
- Capsules:Hard gelatin capsules,shell formulation,manufacturing sizes,storage,printing,filling,cleaning,binding,general formulation of contents,evaluation,soft gelatin capsules,shell formulation,content formulation,filling micro-capsules,advantages,coating materials,methods of application of coating materials,I.P.formulations.
- Tablets:Types,ideal requirements,classification,granulation methods,general formulation,compression machines,diffculties in preparation,evaluation,sugar coating,compression coating,film coating,I.P.formulations.
- Parenterals:Products requireing sterile packing Definitions,type,advantages & limitations,general formulation,vehicles,production procedures,production facilities,control tests,selected I.P.injections,sterile powders,implants,emulsions,suspensions.
- Radio Pharmaceuticals:Therapeutic uses,diagnostic uses,facilities and work area,preparation of radio-pharmaceuticals used in medicine.
- Ophthalmic preparations:Requirements,formulation,Methods of preparation,container evaluation,I.P.products.
- Blood product and plasma substitutes:Collection,processing and storage of,whole human R.B.C.,dried human plasma,human plasma protein fractions,dried human serum,human fibrinogen,human thrombin,human normal immunoglobulin,human fibrin foam.Plasma substitutes:ideal requirements,PVT Dextran etc.experimental of blood products as in I.P.
- Glandular products:Preparation of extracts or Isolation of pure substance for the preparation of dosage forms from pitutary adrenal,pancreas,thyroid,parathroid,ovary,liver,stomach etc.
- Surgical dressing,structures & ligatures,Definitions,primary wound dressing,absorbant surgical cotton,surgical gauges etc.,bandages,adhesive tapes,protectives,cellulosic haemostats,official dressings,absorbable sutures-catgut and others,non absorbable sutures and others.
- Theory & Practice of industrial pharmacy-Lachmann.
- Remington's pharmaceutical sciences.
- Immunological & blood products-Danson & Milne.
- Cooper and Gunn's Tutorial Pharmacy.
- Surgical dressings,ligatures & sutures-Fist and Dawson.
3.3 Pharmaceutical Engineering (Unit operations)
- Particle size Reduction:Objectives,factors affecting size reduction and mechanism of size reduction,Equipments involved in size reduction:Cutter mill,roller mill,Hammer mill,Ball Mill,Fluid energy mill,Colliod mill and edge and runner mill.selection of equipments and degree of size reduction.
- Size separation:Particle size distribution and standards for powders,sieving,sedimentation,microscopy and electrical methods.
- Mixing:Objectives and strategies for mixing of powder,semisolid and liquid components,mixing equipments-shaker mixers,propellar mixers,agitators mixer,tumbling mixers,shear mixers,ultrasonic mixers,etc.
- Filtration:Definition,mechanism and factors affecting filtration,Filter media and filter aids.Types of filtering devices used in pharmacetucal industries,such as filter leaf,filter press, rotary filter,edge filters,membrane filters,HEPA filter etc.
- Crystallization:Importance of size and shape,crytal geometry,forms,types,principles of crystallization,purity equilibria and yeild enthalpy balance,supersaturation,nucleation,mechanism,factors influencing homogenous and hetrogenous solubility curve crystal growth,crystallizers types,tank-evaporator,adiabitic,vacuum draft circulators,magma swenson walker krystals etc.
- Extraction:Definitions and theories of liquid-liquid and solid-liquid extraction,small and large scale extraction procedures,continuous and counter-current extraction,factors alterting choice of extraction process,recovery of solvent from marc.
- Distillation:Physical concept,vapour liquid equilibrium relationship,volatility and relative volatility,simple batch distillation,continuous distillation,rectification,distillation column,and their efficiency,azeotropes,molecular distillation,steam distillation and vacuum distillation.
- Drying:Drying of dilute solutions and suspensions,drum dryer and spray dryer.Drying of solid materials.general principles,type of dryers,tray,tunnel,rotary,fluidised bed,vacuum and freeze dryer,lyophilization.
- Evaporation:Factors affecting evaporations and efficiency of evaporators,Natural circulation,types,evaporating pans and stills,short tube evaporators,Forced circulation type-long tube evaporators,wiped film evaporators,Evaporation under reduced pressure.
- Centrifugation:Basic principles and equipments used in pharmaceutical industries.
Experiments based on theory
- Copper and Gunn's Tutorial Pharmacy,CBS,Delhi.
- Bentley's Text book of pharmaceutics-ER Rawlins ELBS.
- The Theory and practice of industrial pharmacy-Lachman et.al,Varghese publishing House.
- Unit operations,of chemical engineering,Mc Cabe & Smith,Me Curaw Hill.
- Hand Book of chemical engineering-Perry-Mecurron hill.
- Introduction to chemical engineering-Badger et.al,McGraw Hill.
3.4 Hospital Pharmacy, (Clinical Pharmacy including Drug Interactions).
- Hospital and its organisation.
- Pharmacy,Organisation & Personnel.
- Hospital Formulary.
- Pursuasing and Inventory control.
- Pharmacy Procedural Manual.
- Drug Distribution.
- Dispensing to out patients.
- Dispensing to inpatients.
- Dispensing of controlled Drugs.
- Drug charges.
- Drug Information centre.
- Annual report
- Safe use of medicines.
- Professional practices.
- Introduction to clinical pharmacy practice,objectives and scope of clinical pharmacy.
- Role of pharmacist in patient care,counselling & advise for the use of drugs,medication history.
- Pharmacist as a drug information specialist.
- Clinical pharmacist in investigational drugs.
- Monitoring of drugs in human tissues.
- Drug interaction:definition,introduction & implications,Mechanism of drug interaction.
- Drug induced disease & teratogenicity.
- Drug surveillance & patients safety.
- Hospital Pharmacy (Lea & Febiger ('Hassan'
- Bhssist,webb & Stenaszek;clinical pharmacy practice, (Lea and Febiger).
- Kabat:Clinical pharmacy Handbook-Lee & Febiger.
- Jenkins and others;clinical pharmacy.
- Eric.Herfindel & other,clinical pharmacy & therapeutics.
- Remingtons pharmaceutical sciences,mack publishing company.
- Theory & practice of Industrial pharmacy by Lachmann.
- Introduction,development,present status and future scope of Pharmacognosy,study of various systems of classification of crude drugs.
- Systematic study of crude drugs including English,Indian Synonyms,Biological and geographical sources,(by macroscopy,sensory and microscopic of the drugs underlined)chemical constituents,chemical and microchemical tests,uses,adulteration and evaluation of the following drugs;
- Drugs containing carbohydrates:Starch,Honey,Guargum,Sodium alginate,Agar,Linseed,Ispaghula,Bael,Acacia,Tragacanth,sterculia,Katira,Pectin,and Lactose.
- Fixed oils,Fats and Waxes:Olive oil,castor oil,sesame oil,Neem oil,Arachis oil,Chalmoogra oil,Theobroma,Lard,Suet,shark liver oil,Lanolin,Beeswax,Spermaceti,Jujuba wax.
- Drugs containing Volatile oil:Mentha,Coriander,Cinnamon,Cassia,Lemon Peel,Orange Peel,Lemongrass,Citronella,Caraway,cumin,Dill,Spearmint,clove,fennel,Nutmeg,Acorus calamus,Eucalyptus,Chenopodium,caradamom,valerian,pyrethum.
- Drugs containing Resin:Benzoin,Tolu Balasm,Colophony,asafoetida,jalap,kaladana,ginger,colocynth,capsicum,Turmeric,cannabis,Podophyllum.
- Drugs containing Glycosides:seema,Aloe,Rhubarb,Cascara,Digitalis,Strophanthus,Scilla,Thevetia,Dioscorea,Glycyrrhiza,psorelea,Gentian,Picorrhiza,chirata,Quasia,Catechu,Myrobalan,Ammi majus,Quillaia.
- Drugs containing alkaloids:Lobelia,Nicotiana,Belladonna,Hyoscyamus,Datura,Withania,Coca,Cinchona,Ipecac,Curare,Opium,Nux vomica,Ergot,Rauwolfia,Catharanthus,Aconite,Veratrum,Ephedra,Colchicum.
- Miscellaneous Drugs:Gelatin,Jatamansi,Malefern and Sausera.
- Study of biological sources,chemical tests,microscopic features of commercial fibers and earths used as surgical dressing and filtering media:
- Cellulose and its derivatives:cotton wool,oxidised cotton,Methyl Cellulose,carboxy methyl cellulose,wadding.
- Vegetable,Animal and synthetic fibres:Jute,Wool,silk,Nylon,Terylene,Polythene.
- Inorganic Pharmaceutical aids:Talc,Diatomite,Asbestos,Fuller's earths,Bentonite.
- Evaluation-identity,purity and quality of the drug plants by organoleptic,microscopic,physical,chemical and biological methods.
- Variability of drug constituents due to exogenous and endogenous factors,like altitude,temperature,rainfall,light,propagation by seeds,vegetative means.selection,mutation,hybridization and polyploidy.
- Collection of medicinal plants:effect of various factors like season,time,age of plants etc.drying of plants,Hazards like infestation with spores of microorganisms.Drug deterioration by factors like moisture etc.
- Chromatography-Various chromatographic methods covering column,paper,thin layer,and gas chromatography.
- Identification by morphological and sensory character of drugs mentioned in theory.
- Detailed study under microscopy of whole and powdered drugs and chemical tests of drugs underlined in theory.
- Identification of unorganised drugs included in theory by chemical tests.
- Study of fibres by macroscopical,microscopical and chemical tests.
- Practical exercise on chromatography.
- TLC of alkaloidal extracts of the following drugs-ergot,datura,cinchona,opium,ipecac,Nux vomica and Rauwolfia.
- TLC of volatile oils of Dill,Lemongrass,Mentha and Eucalyptus.
- Quantitative microscopy-Determination of stomatal index,palisade ratio,Veinislet number etc.
- Pharmacognosy (8th ed.)1981, V.E.Tylor,L.R.Brady,and J.E.Robbers,pub.Learned Febiger,Philadelphia,U.S.A.
- Pharmacognosy (12th Ed.)G.E.Trease,and W.C.Evans Pub.Baillers Tindall London.
- Surgical dressings and wound healing Ed. K.J.Harkiss,Bradford University Press U.K.
- Cultivation and utilization of Aromatic plants E.D.A. tal and B.N.Kapoor pub.council of scientific Industrial research (CSIR)New Delhi.
- Powdered vegetable Drugs,B.P.Jackson and D.W.Snewden,pub.J.A.Churchill.
- "Thin Layer chromatography" Egon stahl pub.springer verlag.
- Quantitative paper and thin layer chromatography E.J.Shellard pub.acadamic press.
- The organic constituents of higher plants Trevor Bargess pub.Co.
- Pharmacognosy T.E.Wallis,pub.J.A.Churchill.
3.6 Pharmacology II
- Cardio vascular system:Cardiac Glycosides,antiarrhythmics,antihypertensives,coronary dialators,antihyper lipidemic drugs.
- Diuretics and antidiuretics.
- Haemopoeitic system:coagulants,anti coagulants,haematinics,plasma volume expanders.
- Drugs acting on uterus,uterine stimulants and relaxants.
- Gastro Intestinal system:Purgatives,antidiarrhoeals,emetics and antiemetics,carminatives,treatment of peptic ulcer.
- Respiratory system:Bronchodilators,Mucolytic agents.
- Autocoids and antihistaminics:histamine.jprostaglandins,leucotrienes,serotonin.
- Bioassay:principle and methods for bioassay.
- Drug receptor studies to demonstrate cholinergic and histomine receptors using appropriate isolated preparations.
- Frog heart perfusion experiments.
- Bioassay of histamine,acetylcholine and tubocurarine.
- Satoskar and Bhandarkar,"Pharmacology and Pharmacother apeutics".
- F.S.K.Barar,"Essentials of pharmacotherapeutic".
- Alfred Goodman Gilman,Theodore W.Roll,Alan S.Nies,Palmer Taylor,Goodman Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics".
- Laurance and Bennett,"Clinical Pharmacology".
- Crossland,"Lewis Pharmacology".
- Bowman and Rand,"Textbook of pharmacology".
- Kulkarni,"A handbook of experimental Pharmacology".
- M.N.Ghosh,"Fundamentals of experimental pharmacology".
- Perry W.L.M.E. & S.Livingstone Ltd.,"Pharmacological experiments on isolated preparations".
- Seth,Dadka and kamat,"selected topics in experimental pharmacology".
- Burn-Practical Pharmacology.
- Introduction,Biochemical organisation of cell and transport across cell membrane.
- Bioenergetics-Introduction,concept of free energy,Role of high energy phosphate Nucleotide phosphates,production of ATP and its biological significance.
- Biological oxidation and its biochemical importance.
- Enzymes-General properties,classification,mechanism of action,enzyme activation and Inhibition,Reaction kinetics,antienzymes,Isoengymes,coenzymes and their clinical application,factors affecting enzyme action.
- Carbohydrate metabolism-Introduction,glycolysis,glucogenesis,glycogenolysis,gluconeogenes in oxidation of pyruate to acetyl CoA,Glycogen formation and degradation,sicxose monophosphate shunt,uronic acid pathway,citric acid cycle-significance,Reactions energetics and amphilbolic metabolism of fructose,galactose,abnormalilties of carbohydrate metabolism.
- Liquid metabolism:Oxidation of fats (L,B & W)
Biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid,phospholipids.sphingolipids,metabolism of cholesterol.Abnormalities of liquid metabolism.
- Protein Metabolism-Oxidative deamination,transmination,Transmethylation DEcarboxylation,end products of protein metabolism,protein biosynthesis,metabolism of Aminoacids phenylalanine,Tyrosine,tryptophan,cystine,methionine,creatinine,Histidine,Arginine,Lysine serine,abnormalities of protein metabolism.
- Nucleic acid metabolism,purine and pyrimidine metabolism,Biosynthesis of Deoxyribonucleotides,co-enzymes and poly nucleotides,Inhibition of nucleotides biosynthesis.Biosynthesis of nucleic acids-DNA & RNA.Abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism.
- Water and Mineral metabolism-Water metabolism,metabolism of calcium,phosphorus,magnesium,sodium,potassium,Iron,Copper,iodine,zinc,Manganese,cobalt,sulphur.
- Kidney and liver function,test of biological importance,biological detoxication-oxidation,reduction,hydrolysis.
- Study of porphyrins,haemoglobin and bile pigments.
- Detection and identification of protein aminoacids,Carbohydrates and lipids.
- Analysis of body fluids,gastric fluid.
- Analysis of normal and abnormal blood and urine,calcium,glucose,urea,creatinine,creatine,cholesterol,bilirubin,SGPT,SGOT,Alkaline phosphatase,diastase and lipase.
- A.L.Lehninger,Biochemistry,worth publishers Inc.New York.
- Review of physiological chemistry-Harper.
- Text book of Biochemistry-Rama Rao.
3.8 Practice of pharmacy
(drug store management,laws and ethics)
- Development of the pharmaceutical and Drug legislation in India.
- Code of Ethics for pharmacist.
- Pharmacy Act.
- Drugs & Cosmetics Act and Rules.
- Narcotic & psychotropic substances Act.
- Drugs and Magic Remedies Act.
- Poison Act and Rules.
- Medicinal and Toilet preparations (Excise duties)Acts and rules.
- Shops and establishment act.
- Patent Act.
- Factory Act.
- Essential commodities and drugs price control order.
- Other acts and rules pertaining the profession of pharmacy.
- Forms of Business-Location of Drugs store (Retail pharmacy).
- Selection of the location of a drug store.
- Acquisition of a store premises.
- Premises and its features of construction.
- Pharmacy and lay out.
- Business and insurance.
- Purchase of goods for the store.
- Inventory and its control.
- Sales promption,its science and technique.
- Effective drug store salesmanship.
- Developing professional and allied business.
- Selecting Training and supervising employees.
- Paying employees and evaluation of the employees.
- Drug store routine and maintenance,house keeping.
- Profit earning policies of the store.
- Accounting records in the drug store.
- Use of external agencies for helping to guide the business.
- Certain legal principles for the pharmacist & laws affecting retail drug store business.
- Meeting competition in retail drug store business.
- Future trends in retail drug store profession and business in India.
- Original laws published by Govt.of India.
- Text book of forensic pharmacy-Mithal.
- Laws of Drugs in India-Hussain.
- Text Book of forensic pharmacy management S.H.Merchant.
- Text book of forensic pharmacy-N.K.Jain.
4.1 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-V
(Medicinal chemistry II including drug design)
- Theoretical aspects of drug design:SAR studies.
- Structural features and pharmacological activity:Steric aspects.
- Drug metabolism:Pathways of biotransformation,conjugation pathways.
The following topics shall be treated as covering outline of synthetic procedures (of selected drugs) Uses,S.A.R.including physicochemical an steric aspects,metabolism and mode of action.
- Cholinergics and methacholinesterases:Acetylcholines methacholine,carbachol,Bethanechol,Psysotigmine,Neostigmine,Ditsopropyl fluorophosphate,parathion.
- Anticonvulsants:Phenobarbitone,metbarbital.phenytoin,Ethotoin,Paramethadione,phensuximide,Methosuximide,Acetazolamide,phenscetride,jprimidone,diazepam,chlordiazepoxide,clonazepam,valproic acid,carbamazepine.
- Analeptics:strychnine,picrotoxin,Nikethamide,Ethamivan,pentylene tetrazole,Bemegride,caffeine,Theophyline.
- Antianxiety agents:Chlordiazepoxide,diazepam,hydroxyzine,tybamate.
- Muscle relaxants:Mephenesin,Methocarbamol,carisoprodol,metaxalone,chlorzoxazone,orphenadrine.
- Antiparkinsonism drugs:Benzfropine,procyclidine,biperiden,Diphenhydramine,chlorphenoxamine.
- Antispasmodics and antiulcer drugs:Atropine,Hyoscyamine,scopolamine,Homatropine,clidinium bromide,cyclopentolate,Dicyclomine,Glycopyrrolate,mepenzolate,oxyphency climine,Propantheline,orphenadrine,isopropamide,procyclidine,Ethopropazine.
- Curariform drugs and ganglion blockers:d-tubocurarine,succinylcholine,decamethonium,Gallamine,Hexafluorenium,Pancuronium.
- Local anaesthetics:Cocaine,Isobucaine,Piperocaine,Benzocaine,Procaine,Tetracaine,Propoxycaine,Lidocaine,Prilocaine,Etidocaine,Phenacaine,Diperodon,Dyclonine.
- Antiallergic agents:Diphenhydramine,Doxylamine,Pyrilamine,Tripelennamine;pheniramine,chlorpheniramine,Brompheniramine,Triprolidine,Promethazine;Methdilazine,chlorcyclizine,jphenindamine,Cyproheptadine,Buclizine.
- Gastrointestinal agents:Bisacodyl,simethicone,Docusate,Metoclopramide.
- Thyroid hormones & antithyroid drugs:Levothyroxine,liothyronine,propylthiouracil,Methimazole,polypeptide and protein harmones.
- Diuretics:Mersalyl,urea,Mannitol,chlormerodrin,Ethacrynic acid,aminophylline,Triamterene,Amiloride,Acetazolamide,Dichlorphenamide,chlorothiazide,Hydrochlorothiazide,Bendroflumethiazide,Furosemide,metolazone,closexolone,chlorthalidone,spironolactone.
- Anthiypertensive agents:Reserpine,guanethidine,Diazoxide,hydralazine,Minoxidil,Methyldopa,prazosin,clonidine,pargyline.
- Coagulants and anticoagulants:Heparin,Bishydroxycoumarine,warfarin,phenindione,Dicumarol,Anisindione.
- Hypoglycemic agents:Insulin,phenformin,Tolbutamide,Chlorpropamide Acctohexamide,Tolazamide.
- Plasma expanders and diagnostic agents:Iodohippurate,Diatrizoate,Iothalamate,Metrizamide,Iopanoic acid propyliodone,Aminohippuric acid,Ipodate,Rosebengal,Fluorescein,chlormerodin,Metyrapone,Evansblue.
- Wilson & Gisvold's Textbook of organic Medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry,J.B.Lippincott Co.
- W.O.Foye,Principles of Medicinal chemistry.
- M.E.Wolff,Burger's medicinal chemistry,john wiley & Sons.
- Remingtons pharmaceutical sciences.
Typical synthesis of drugs & drug intermediates by use of the following types of reactions:-
- Benzoin condensation,
- Benzilic acid rearrangement.
- Friedel Crafts alkylation and acylation
- Hoffmann-Bromamide reaction,
- Perkin condensation
- Grignard reaction,
- Claisen condensation,
- MVP reduction,
- Catalytic hydrogenation
- Skraup synthesis.
- Vogals Textbook of practical organic chemistry,ELBS.
- Mann & Saunders-practical organic chemistry.
Pharmaceutics V (Dosage forms design and cosmeticology)
- Preformulation:Physical and chemical properties of drugs influencing design of dosage forms.
- Sustained release dosage forms:Basic concepts,Theory and Implementation of design.Product evaluation and testing,practical formulation and controlled release technology.
- Pharmaceutical Aerosols:Definitions,propellants,general formulation,manufacturing evaluation and packaging methods,pharmaceutical applications.
- Pilot plant scale up Techniques.
- Good manufacturing practices,optimization and validation of manufacturing process.
- An Introduction:Novel Drug Delivery system.
- Origin and development of cosmetic sciences and technology.
- Structure and physiology skin.
- Definition and general formulation,manufacturing process and evaluation of the following preparations.
Creams,lotions,face powders,lip sticks,mouthwashes,shaving preparations,shampoos,baby toiletories,antiperspirants,deodorants,Nail lacquers, tooth powders.
- Packaging of cosmetics.
- Testing of cosmetic preparations.
- Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences.
- Theory and practice of industrial pharmacy-Lachmann.
- Bentley's text book of pharmaceutics.
- Novel Drug Delivery system juliano.
- Cosmetics sciences and Technology-'Sagarin'
- Good Manufacturing practics-Yolkowski Marcill Dekker & Co.N.Y.
- H.Sucker,P.Fuchs,P.Spiser,Pharmaceutical Technology,Gerory Thieme Berlag,Stuttgont,1978.
- Food and Drug Administration'Draft Guideline on the preparation of investgational raw products' 5600.fishers Lane Rockville,Maryland 208576 February,1988.
4.3 Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics
- Introduction to Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics.
- Gastro intestinal Absorption,physico chemical and biological consideration and role of the dosage form in drug absorption.
- Drug disposition-Distribution,biotransformation and elimination and factors affecting them.
- Bioavailability-Bioequivalency-Definition,dosage forms,Drug concentration & clinical response,Bioequivalency testing.
- Pharmacokinetic models,Basic Pharmacokinetics,order of processes,non compartmental model,one compartment open model,two compartment open model,non conformities and miscellncy,Kinetic principles in evaluation of drug and formulated products.
- Pharmacokinetic variability-Body weight,Age,sex,Genetic factors,diseases,Drug interactions,blood flow rate,volume of distribution,gastric emptying time,protein bindings.
- Individualization & optimization of drug dosing regimens.
- Remington's pharmaceutical sciences.
- Theory & Practice of Industrial pharmacy-Lachmann.
- Handbook of basic pharmacokinetics-J.G.Wagner.
- Bio pharmaceutics & pharmaceutical dosage forms-H.E.Ansel.
4.3 Pharm.Analysis II
(Instrumental and Market sample Analysis,Q.C. including Statistical C)
- Advantage and limitations of chemical methods of analysis and instrumental methods of analysis.
- Visible spectrophotometry and colorimetry:Introduction,theory of spectrophotometry and diviation form Beer's law,instrumentation,colorimeters,nonrecording and recording spectrophotometry,applications of colorimetry and spectromphotometry,spectrophotometric titrations.
- U.V.Spectroscopy:Introduction,origin and theory of UV spectra,choice of spectra,choice of solvents.instrumentation,applications.
- Infared spectroscopy:Introduction,orign and theory of infrared spectra,instrumentation,sample handling,absorptions of common functional groups,applications.
- Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy:Introduction and theory,instrumentation and sample handling,chemical shift,spin spin coupling,applications and limitations.
- Quantitative determination of carbon,hydrogen,oxygen,Nitrogen elements,Alcohol and Alkaloidal content.
- Refractometry:Introduction,theory,instrumentation,specific and molar refraction,variables affecting refractive measurements,applications.
- Polarimetry:Introduction,optical activity,specific rotation,polarization,applications.
- Measurement of pH. Detection and determination of pH,instrumentation.
- Ptenitometry:Introduction,instrumentation,types of potentiometric titrations,advantages.
- Chromatography:Introduction,principle,experimental details and applications of paper,thin layer,gas,liquid,nonexchange chromatography,introduction to H.P.L.C.
- Quality of a dosage form:statistical methods of quality control,sampling,automated assays,automated process controls.
- Radiochemical methods of analysis & their application,Radio tracer techniques and Radio immunoassays.
- Analysis of some important drugs.
- Analysis of some carbohydrates.
- Determination of pH by pH meter.
- Potentiometric titrations involving acidbase,precipitation,redox titration.
- Determination of refractive index by refractometry.
- Analysis of dosage form Tabs. injs.,caps,ointment as per pharmacopoeia.
- Determination of water content by IR moisture Balance and Karl Fischer apparatus.
- Paper chromatography (Ascending and descending type)
- Thin Layer chromatography.
- A.Connors,A test book of Pharm.Analysis.
- I.Vogal,A text book of quantitative chemical analysis,E.L.B.S. London.
- Willard,Instrumental analysis.
- Ewing,Method of instrumental analysis.
- Chatwal and Anand,Instrumental methods of analysis.
- Bechett and stanlake,'Pharmaceutical chemistry,Part-II.
- D.C.Garatt,The quantitative analysis of drugs,champann and Hill Ltd.,London.
- General methods of extraction,isolation,identification,characterisation of various groups of phytoconstituents Viz. Carbohydrates,Glycosides,phenolic compounds,fixed oils,volatile oils,Resins,steroids,Alkaloids.
- Isolation,analysis in natural sources and chemotexonomic distribution of the following phytoconstituents of medicinal and industrial significnace.
- Alkaloids:Atropine,Hyoscine colchicine,ergometrine,morphine,paparverine,quinine,stychnine,reserpine,ephedrine,caffeine.
- Flavanoids and coumarins:Rutin,psoralen,Xanthotoxin.
- Biological sources,preparation,identification tests and uses of the following enzymes:
- Study of natural allergens/allergenic substances,hallucinogens and antitumor drugs.
- Biogenesis of medicinally important secondary plant metabolites.
- Preparation and standardization of Ayurvedic formulation,Asavas,Arishthas Avleha,Churna & Bhasma.
- Study of Indigenous Traditional Drugs:Botanical sources including alternative,controversial sources,clinical uses,chemical constituents,Pharmacological actions and authentication of the following Ayurvedic drugs;
Amla (Phyllanthus emblica)
Baheda (Terminalia balerica)
Kantkari (Solanum xanthocarpum)
Malkaghni (Celstrus Paniculatus)
Tylophora (Tylophora indica)
Latavar (Asparagus racemosus)
Bhilawa (Semecarpus anacardium)
Kaner (Nerium indicum)
Bach (Acorus calamus)
Rasna (Pluchia lanceolata)
Punarnava (Boerravia diffusa)
Chitrak (Plumbago Zeylanica)
Apamarg (Achyranthus aspera)
Gokhru (Tribulus terrestris)
Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus Microphyllus)
Gaduchi (Tinospora Cordifolia)
Nirgundi (Vitex neguno)
Brahmi (Cemntella asiatica)
Lahsun (Allium sativum).
Palash (Butla monosperma)
Majith (Rubia cordifolia)
Guggal (Commiphora Mukul)
Vasaka (Adhatoda Vasica).
- Identification of sources,chemical analysis and isolation of some phytopharmaceuticals mentioned in theory.
- Study of morphological sensory characters,chemical and microchemical tests and TLC pattern of some selected indigenous drugs mentioned in theory.
- Standardization of drugs/plants/indigenous preparations by determination of total solids,alcohol contents,TLC pattern of active principles and chemical analysis.
- Histological study of powered drugs found as component of churna and in mixture as churna.
- Cultivation and utilization of medicinal plants.Eds.C.K.Atal,& B.M.Kapoor,CSIR New Delhi.
- Biosynthetic products for cancer chemotherapy by George Pattit Vol.I,II,III,Plenum press New York.
- Natural products as medicinal agents Ed.J.L.Beal,and Reinhard Hippocrates Verleg.
- New Natural products and plant Drugs with Pharmacological biological as therapeutic activity,Ed.H.W.agner and P.W. off springer Verleg.
- Medicinal plant glycosides-Sim.Toronto.
- Medicinal plant Alkaloids-Sim.Toronto.
- Wealth of India CSIR Publication,New Delhi.
- Modern methods of plant analysis peach & Tracey.
- Indian pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia.
- Phytochemical methods-A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis,by J.B.Harborn,IInd Ed. London,New York.
- Biochemistry of alkaloids by mothes,Schiitte and M.Luckner.
- Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia.
4.6 Pharmacology III
- Chemotherapy:Sulfonamides, Antibiotics and other synthetic Chemotherapeutic agents.
- General principles of chemotherapy,chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria, amoebiasis, sexually transmitted diseases Antiviral agents.
Antifungal agents and anthelmintic drugs.
Cytotoxic drugs and immunosuppressives.
- Local antiinfective agents:antiseptic and disinfactants.
- Endocrine system:Thyroid and parathyroid hormone, antithyroid drugs. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents,glucagon,corticosteroids,sex hormones,and oral contraceptives.
- Sera & vaccines.
- Diagnostic agents.
- Satoskar and Bhandarkar, "Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics".
- F.S.K.Barar, "Essentials of Pharmacotherapeutic"
- Alfred Goodman Gilman, Theodore W.Roll, AlanS.Nies, Palmer Taylor, "Goodman Gilman's The pharmacological basis of therapeutics".
- Laurance and Bennett, "Clinical Pharmacology"
- Crossland, "Lewis Pharmacology".
- Bowman and Rand, "Textbook of Pharmacology".
- Kulkarni, "A handbook of experimental pharmacology".
- M.N.Ghosh, "Fundamentals of experimental Pharmacology".
- Perry W.L.M.E. & S.Livingstone Ltd, "Pharmacological experiments on isolated preparations".
- Seth, Dadka and kamat, "Selected topics in experimental pharmacology".
- Burn, "Practical Pharmacology".
Bio-Technology & Fermentation including Tissue Culture.
- Enzymes:Discovery,classification and nomenclature of Enzymes Mechallis melton equation.Kinetics of inhibition, regulation of enzyme activity, Allosteric enzymes, Iso enzymes, Study of immobilized enzymes and their behaviour. Enzymes immobilized on inorganic supports, enzymes electrodes, enzymes based sensors Antibiotic inactivating enzymes.
- Advantages of Monoclonal antibodies in study of cell surface markers.
- Tissue Culture:Production of Pharmaceuticals by tissues culture.
- Industrial Bio technology:Fermentative production of Penicillin,semisynthetic pencillins,streptomycin, Riboflavin, Ascorbic Acid Amylases, Proteoses, Lysine,Glutamic acid.
- Introduction to Genetics:Bio transformations-DNA as a genetic material, DNA structure and molecular properties, Replication of DNA polymerases, semiconservative replication, Recombinant DNA techniques.
- Energy production:By Bio Mass, Bioenergy, Ethanol, Biogas, HYdrocarbons.
- Halometabolites:Biosyntheis and biological activity.
Practicals based on theory.
4.8 Industrial Psychology and practicals based on theory Management including Marketing
- Management:Meaning, evolution (Scientific administrative and human relation approach) and process of management (planning,organising staffing,directing,coordinating and controlling -a preliminary idea of their concepts, processes and techniques), Functional areas of management:production management, marketing management, personnel management, financial management (their meaning and functions)
- Production management:-Production planning and control, production processes:mass, job and project; materials management and inventory control; plant location and lay out; work study (preliminary idea only).
- Marketing management:-Evolution of modern concept; market segmentation; concept of marketing mix; market research; product planning; pricing, promotion; channels of distribution; Indian marketing environment.
- Industrial psychology-Transactional analysis (Meaning, Ego status,types of transactions and life positions-a preliminary idea). organisation development (Preliminary idea), Motivation-Maslow's theory, Approaches and styles of leadership (Preliminary idea).
- Personnel Management:-Recruitment and selection of man power, wage and salary administration, retrenchment, lay off and discharge.
- Tripathi P.C. and Reddy P.N.:Management; Tata Mc Graw Hill.
- Shukla M.C.:Business organization and management;S.Chand and company.
- Sherlakar S.A.:Business organization and management;Himalaya.
- Filippo E.B.:Personnel management;McGraw Hill.
- Kotler Philip:Marketing Management;prentice Hall of India
- Rao and Narayan:Organizational Behaviour; Konark publishers.
- Tripathi P.C.; Personnel Management;S.Chand and Co.
- Memoria C.B.:Principle and practice of marketing in India.